- Slides: 9
Topic: China and the New Imperialism Aim: How did the Opium War affect China? Do now: What is opium? Where in the world does it come from?
Background: • Prior to the 1800’s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign traders. • China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than it imported. • Westerners had a trade deficit with China, buying more from the Chinese than they sold to them.
Opium imports into China 16501850
The Opium Wars • Two wars between Great Britain and China over influence of Great Britain. • They wanted control over Opium Trade – wanted Chinese opium to be purchased from England • The First Opium War, during 1839– 1842, Second War - 1856– 1860
Treaty of Nanjing- 1842 This is an example of an unequal treaty. 1. China had to pay huge a indemnity, or payment for losses in the war 2. Britain gained Hong Kong (returned to China in 1997!) 3. Five ports were opened to foreign trade 5. Extraterritoriality, or the right to live in China, but follow British laws and court system.
Carving up the “dragon” Britain, France, Russia, Japan and Germany carve China into spheres of influences, or areas of exclusive trading. 1899 - U. S. calls for Open Door Policy
Reaction to Foreign Domination- Boxer Rebellion 1900 • Secret society attacked foreigners across China. They were defeated, but Chinese nationalism was growing. • They wanted to strengthen the government and form a
“Birth of a Republic”Chinese Revolution of 1911 • In 1911 Sun Yixian was named president of the new Chinese republic. He promised “three principles of the people”: • 1. nationalism- freedom from foreigners • 2. democracy- representative government • 3. livelihood- economic security