Topic 5 3 Classification and Biodiversity The binomial

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Topic 5. 3 – Classification and Biodiversity

Topic 5. 3 – Classification and Biodiversity

The binomial nomenclature is a system for naming organisms that was developed by the

The binomial nomenclature is a system for naming organisms that was developed by the Swedish botanist, Carolus Linnaeus in the 1700’s. It is an international system of naming where an organism’s name consists of its genus and species. The genus is always capitalized and the name is written in italics. Examples: Homo sapiens, Canis lupus, Escherichiaa coli, Bellis perennis, Panthera pardis, Lutra lutra 5. 5. 1

All organisms are classified into three domains: (Remember, viruses are not classified as living)

All organisms are classified into three domains: (Remember, viruses are not classified as living) 5. 5. 1

Organisms are organized into seven hierarchal levels of taxa, from most shared characteristics to

Organisms are organized into seven hierarchal levels of taxa, from most shared characteristics to least shared. King Phillip Came Over For Grape Soda 5. 5. 2

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TAXA EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2 Kingdom Animalia Plantae Phlyum Class Order Family Genus Species

TAXA EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2 Kingdom Animalia Plantae Phlyum Class Order Family Genus Species Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Caridae Canis lupus Angiospermophyta Monoccotyledoneae Palmales Arecaceae Phoenix dactylifera 5. 5. 2

Which of these are more closely related? Carcharhinus melanopterus Black-tip reef shark Triaenodon obesus

Which of these are more closely related? Carcharhinus melanopterus Black-tip reef shark Triaenodon obesus White-tip reef shark Carcharhinus perezi Caribbean reef shark 5. 5. 2

Which of these are more closely related? Canis lupus familiaris Canis lupus langier Canis

Which of these are more closely related? Canis lupus familiaris Canis lupus langier Canis rufus 5. 5. 2

Classification of plants Kingdom Plantae Non-Vascular Plants (small, with no conductive tissues) e. g.

Classification of plants Kingdom Plantae Non-Vascular Plants (small, with no conductive tissues) e. g. chlorophytes (algae) and bryophytes (mosses) Spermatophyta Filicinophya (alternating life cycle) e. g. ferns (produce seeds) Angiospermophytes (flowering plants) (have conductive tissues) Coniferophyta (have cones) e. g. pines Gymnospermophytes (naked seeds – cones) e. g. pines, cycads, gingko Monocotyledons Dicotyledons (one seed-leaf) e. g. grasses, grains, orchids (two seed-leaves) e. g. roses, magnolia, ginger 5. 5. 3

Bryophytes are small, terrestrial plants that have no roots, leaves or stems. They have

Bryophytes are small, terrestrial plants that have no roots, leaves or stems. They have leaf-like structures and live in clusters. Includes mosses and algae. Filicinophytes are ferns that have true leaves. They have an underground creeping system and reproduce using spores. New leaves unroll when mature. 5. 5. 3

Coniferophytes are coniferous woody plants that typically have needles. They produce seeds that are

Coniferophytes are coniferous woody plants that typically have needles. They produce seeds that are found in hard cones. Usually have one single large trunk. Angiospermophytes are flowering plants that have leaf blades and stalks. Their seeds usually become fruit. 5. 5. 3

Which is which? 5. 5. 3

Which is which? 5. 5. 3

External Recognition Features Phlya Roots, Leaves & Stems Reproduction Bryophyta No roots or stem,

External Recognition Features Phlya Roots, Leaves & Stems Reproduction Bryophyta No roots or stem, no true leaves. Furry appearance Spores released from capsule at end of stalk. Filicinophyta Roots, leaves and short stems. Non-woody. Leaves divided into sections and may be curled. Spores produced from capsules under leaves. Coniferophyta Woody trees, have pine needles for leaves Seeds develop in female cones. Angiospermophtya Roots, stems and, leaves. Produce flowers. Seeds dispersed through fruits. 5. 5. 3

External Recognition Features Phlya Roots, Leaves & Stems Reproduction Bryophyta No roots or stem,

External Recognition Features Phlya Roots, Leaves & Stems Reproduction Bryophyta No roots or stem, no true leaves. Furry appearance Spores released from capsule at end of stalk. Filicinophyta Roots, leaves and short stems. Non-woody. Leaves divided into sections and may be curled. Spores produced from capsules under leaves. Coniferophyta Woody trees, have pine needles for leaves Seeds develop in female cones. Angiospermophtya Roots, stems and, leaves. Produce flowers. Seeds dispersed through fruits. 5. 5. 3

Invertebrates of the Animal kingdom can also be identified by their physical external features.

Invertebrates of the Animal kingdom can also be identified by their physical external features. The six phyla you should recognize are: Porifera Platyhelminthes Cnidaria Annelida Mollusca Arthropoda 5. 5. 4

Porifera are sponges that have a primitive body. They live in water and are

Porifera are sponges that have a primitive body. They live in water and are non-motile. They don’t have a mouth, but filter water that they pump through their bodies. Cnidaria include jellyfish and sea anenomes. They have stinging cells and radial symmetry. There is one opening to their gastrovascular cavity. 5. 5. 4

Phlya Symmetr y Digestive Tract Segmentatio n Other Porifera none no mouth / anus

Phlya Symmetr y Digestive Tract Segmentatio n Other Porifera none no mouth / anus none porous, attached to rocks Cnidaria radial mouth, no anus none tentacles around mouth Platyhellminthes bilateral mouth, no anus none ribbon-shaped body Annelida bilateral mouth & anus very segmented may have bristles Mollusca bilateral mouth & anus not visible many have shell Arthropoda bilateral mouth & anus segmented exoskeleton, appendages 5. 5. 4

Platyhelminthes are flatworms, which have a soft and flattened body. They have bilateral symmetry

Platyhelminthes are flatworms, which have a soft and flattened body. They have bilateral symmetry and one opening to their gastro-vascular cavity. They live in water and are often parasitic. Annelida include worms and leaches, with ring-like segments. They have a mouth and anus, live in watery environments and have no legs. Bristles help them move. 5. 5. 4

Phlya Symmetr y Digestive Tract Segmentatio n Other Porifera none no mouth / anus

Phlya Symmetr y Digestive Tract Segmentatio n Other Porifera none no mouth / anus none porous, attached to rocks Cnidaria radial mouth, no anus none tentacles around mouth Platyhellminthes bilateral mouth, no anus none ribbon-shaped body Annelida bilateral mouth & anus very segmented may have bristles Mollusca bilateral mouth & anus not visible many have shell Arthropoda bilateral mouth & anus segmented exoskeleton, appendages 5. 5. 4

Mollusca include snails, squids, clams and slugs. They have soft, unsegmented bodied and sometimes

Mollusca include snails, squids, clams and slugs. They have soft, unsegmented bodied and sometimes have a shell for protection. Arthropoda have jointed legs and an exoskeleton made of chitin. Their bodies are segmented, each of which has appendages. They are freeliving and sometimes are parasitic. 5. 5. 4

Phlya Symmetr y Digestive Tract Segmentatio n Other Porifera none no mouth / anus

Phlya Symmetr y Digestive Tract Segmentatio n Other Porifera none no mouth / anus none porous, attached to rocks Cnidaria radial mouth, no anus none tentacles around mouth Platyhellminthes bilateral mouth, no anus none ribbon-shaped body Annelida bilateral mouth & anus very segmented may have bristles Mollusca bilateral mouth & anus not visible many have shell Arthropoda bilateral mouth & anus segmented exoskeleton, appendages 5. 5. 4

Phlya Symmetr y Digestive Tract Segmentatio n Other Porifera none no mouth / anus

Phlya Symmetr y Digestive Tract Segmentatio n Other Porifera none no mouth / anus none porous, attached to rocks Cnidaria radial mouth, no anus none tentacles around mouth Platyhellminthes bilateral mouth, no anus none ribbon-shaped body Annelida bilateral mouth & anus very segmented may have bristles Mollusca bilateral mouth & anus not visible many have shell Arthropoda bilateral mouth & anus segmented exoskeleton, appendages 5. 5. 4

Dichotomous keys are used to determine the identity of various organisms based on observable

Dichotomous keys are used to determine the identity of various organisms based on observable features. It is made up dichotomous (pairs) questions. For example, for a given set of organisms: 1. Does it have feathers? 2. Does it swim? 3. Does it have legs? Yes No go to Q 2 go to Q 3 Duck Hen Lizard Snake 5. 5. 5

1. Is it symmetrical? Yes No 2. Symmetry is… Radial Bilateral 3. Gastric tube…

1. Is it symmetrical? Yes No 2. Symmetry is… Radial Bilateral 3. Gastric tube… Mouth & Anus Mouth, no anus 4. Segmentation… Yes No, or not visible 5. Exoskeleton? Yes No go to Q 2 Phylum Porifera Phylum Cnidaria go to Q 3 to to Q 4 Phylum Platyhelminthes go to Q 5 Phlum Mollusca Phylum Arthropoda Phlum Annelida 5. 5. 5

5. 5. 5 – Apply and design a dichotomous key for up to eight

5. 5. 5 – Apply and design a dichotomous key for up to eight organisms. 5. 5. 5