Topic 2 2 1 Project Management Context 2

  • Slides: 63
Download presentation
Topic 2 2. 1 Project Management Context 2. 2 Project Management Processes ICT 327

Topic 2 2. 1 Project Management Context 2. 2 Project Management Processes ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 1

This week • Reading • Topics 1 & 2 • Tutorial • Hand in

This week • Reading • Topics 1 & 2 • Tutorial • Hand in Weekly Report for topic 2 • Template on FTP & Web. CT sites. • Diagnostic writing test • Practical exercises. • Skills ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 2

Topic 2 reading • Essential • Schwalbe Chapters 2 & 3 • Recommended •

Topic 2 reading • Essential • Schwalbe Chapters 2 & 3 • Recommended • PMBOK Chapters 2 & 3 ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 3

Topics for today 2. 1 Project Management Context 2. 2 Project Management Processes ICT

Topics for today 2. 1 Project Management Context 2. 2 Project Management Processes ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 4

Learning Objectives At the end of this topic, you should be able to: •

Learning Objectives At the end of this topic, you should be able to: • Explain the systems view of project management and how it applies to information technology projects • Analyze a formal organization using the structural, human resources, political, and symbolic organizational frames • Explain the differences among functional, matrix, and project organizational structures • Explain why stakeholder management and top management commitment are critical for a project’s success ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 5

Topic 2. 1 - Learning Objectives At the end of this topic, you should

Topic 2. 1 - Learning Objectives At the end of this topic, you should be able to: • Explain the concept, development, implementation, and close-out phases of the project life cycle • Distinguish between project development and product development • Discuss the unique attributes and diverse nature of information technology projects • List the skills and attributes of a good project manager in general and in the information technology field ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 6

Projects Cannot Be Run in Isolation • Projects must operate in a broad organizational

Projects Cannot Be Run in Isolation • Projects must operate in a broad organizational environment • Project managers need to take a holistic or systems view of a project and understand how it is situated within the larger organization • See example in opening and closing case to illustrate this concept ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 7

A Systems View of Project Management • A systems approach emerged in the 1950

A Systems View of Project Management • A systems approach emerged in the 1950 s to describe a more analytical approach to management and problem solving • Three parts include: • Systems philosophy: View things as systems, interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose • Systems analysis: problem-solving approach • Systems management: Address business, technological, and organizational issues before making changes to systems ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 8

Three Sphere Model for Systems Management ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2,

Three Sphere Model for Systems Management ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 9

Understanding Organizations Structural frame: Focuses on roles and responsibilities, coordination and control. Organizational charts

Understanding Organizations Structural frame: Focuses on roles and responsibilities, coordination and control. Organizational charts help define this frame. Human resources frame: Focuses on providing harmony between needs of the organization and needs of people. Political frame: Assumes organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups. Conflict and power are key issues. Symbolic frame: Focuses on symbols and meanings related to events. Culture is important. ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 10

What Went Wrong? Many enterprise resource planning (ERP) projects fail due to organisational issues.

What Went Wrong? Many enterprise resource planning (ERP) projects fail due to organisational issues. For example, Sobey’s Canadian grocery store chain abandoned its two-year, $90 million ERP system due to organizational problems. As Dalhousie University Associate Professor Sunny Marche states, “The problem of building an integrated system that can accommodate different people is a very serious challenge. You can’t divorce technology from the sociocultural issues. They have an equal role. ” Sobey’s ERP system shut down for five days and employees were scrambling to stock potentially empty shelves in several stores for weeks. The system failure cost Sobey’s more than $90 million and caused shareholders to take an 82 -cent after-tax hit per share. * *Hoare, Eva. “Software hardships, ” The Herald, Halifax, Nova Scotia (2001) ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 11

Many Organizations Focus on the Structural Frame • Most people understand what organizational charts

Many Organizations Focus on the Structural Frame • Most people understand what organizational charts are • Many new managers try to change organizational structure when other changes are needed • 3 basic organizational structures • functional • project • matrix ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 12

Basic Organizational Structures ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 13

Basic Organizational Structures ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 13

Organizational Structure Influences on Projects The organizational structure influences the project manager’s authority, but

Organizational Structure Influences on Projects The organizational structure influences the project manager’s authority, but project managers need to remember to address the human resources, political, and symbolic frames, too. ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 14

The Importance of Project Stakeholders • Recall that project stakeholders are the people involved

The Importance of Project Stakeholders • Recall that project stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities • Project managers must take time to identify, understand, and manage relationships with all project stakeholders • Using the four frames of organizations can help meet stakeholder needs and expectations • Senior executives are very important stakeholders Stakeholder Analysis ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 15

Example • Electronic Warfare • Users touch-type experts • End system was designed mouse-driven

Example • Electronic Warfare • Users touch-type experts • End system was designed mouse-driven • Could not used. The system was scrapped. ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 16

Question • For the School of IT website, who are all of the project

Question • For the School of IT website, who are all of the project stakeholders? • List as many as you can on your own for 1 minute. • Compare with a partner for another minute. ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 17

What Helps Projects Succeed? According to the Standish Group’s report “CHAOS 2001: A Recipe

What Helps Projects Succeed? According to the Standish Group’s report “CHAOS 2001: A Recipe for Success, ” the following items help IT projects succeed, in order of importance: • • • Executive support User involvement Experienced project manager Clear business objectives Minimized scope Standard software infrastructure Firm basic requirements Formal methodology Reliable estimates ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 18

Need for Top Management Commitment • Several studies cite top management commitment as one

Need for Top Management Commitment • Several studies cite top management commitment as one of the key factors associated with project success • Top management can help project managers secure adequate resources, get approval for unique project needs in a timely manner, receive cooperation from people throughout the organization, and learn how to be better leaders ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 19

Need for Organizational Commitment to Information Technology • If the organization has a negative

Need for Organizational Commitment to Information Technology • If the organization has a negative attitude toward IT, it will be difficult for an IT project to succeed • Having a Chief Information Officer (CIO) at a high level in the organization helps IT projects • Assigning non-IT people to IT projects also encourages more commitment ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 20

Need for Organizational Standards • Standards and guidelines help project managers be more effective

Need for Organizational Standards • Standards and guidelines help project managers be more effective • Senior management can encourage • the use of standard forms and software for project management • the development and use of guidelines for writing project plans or providing status information • the creation of a project management office or centre of excellence ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 21

Question • How can you tell if a project uses standards or not? •

Question • How can you tell if a project uses standards or not? • What types of standards would be useful? ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 22

Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle • A project life cycle is a

Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle • A project life cycle is a collection of project phases • Project phases vary by project or industry, but some general phases include • • concept development implementation support ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 23

Phases of the Project Life Cycle ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2,

Phases of the Project Life Cycle ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 24

Product Life Cycles • Products also have life cycles • The Systems Development Life

Product Life Cycles • Products also have life cycles • The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a framework for describing the phases involved in developing and maintaining information systems • Systems development projects can follow • predictive models: the scope of the project can be clearly articulated and the schedule and cost can be predicted • adaptive models: projects are mission driven and component based, using time-based cycles to meet target dates ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 25

Predictive Model • Example: Waterfall Lifecycle ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2,

Predictive Model • Example: Waterfall Lifecycle ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 26

Predictive Life Cycle Models • Waterfall model: has well-defined, linear stages of systems development

Predictive Life Cycle Models • Waterfall model: has well-defined, linear stages of systems development and support • Spiral model: shows that software is developed using an iterative or spiral approach rather than a linear approach • Incremental release model: provides for progressive development of operational software • Prototyping model: is used for developing prototypes to clarify user requirements • RAD model: is used to produce systems quickly without sacrificing quality ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 27

Adaptive Life Cycle Models • Extreme Programming (XP): Developers program in pairs and must

Adaptive Life Cycle Models • Extreme Programming (XP): Developers program in pairs and must write the tests for their own code. XP teams include developers, managers, and users • Scrum: Repetitions of iterative development are referred to as sprints, which normally last thirty days. Teams often meet every day for a short meeting, called a scrum, to decide what to accomplish that day. Works best for objectoriented technology projects and requires strong leadership to coordinate the work ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 28

Question • Which type of life cycle would be best for: • Development of

Question • Which type of life cycle would be best for: • Development of a game • Accounts payable system • Why? ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 29

Project Life Cycles vs. Product Life Cycles • The project life cycle • Applies

Project Life Cycles vs. Product Life Cycles • The project life cycle • Applies to all projects, regardless of the products being produced • Product life cycle models • Vary considerably based on the nature of the product • Most large IT systems are developed as a series of projects • Project management is done in all of the product life cycle phases ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 30

Why Have Project Phases & Mangt Reviews? • A project should successfully pass through

Why Have Project Phases & Mangt Reviews? • A project should successfully pass through each of the project phases in order to continue on to the next • Management reviews (also called phase exits or kill points) should occur after each phase to evaluate the project’s progress, likely success, and continued compatibility with organizational goals ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 31

What Went Right? "The real improvement that I saw was in our ability to

What Went Right? "The real improvement that I saw was in our ability to in the words of Thomas Edison know when to stop beating a dead horse. …Edison's key to success was that he failed fairly often; but as he said, he could recognize a dead horse before it started to smell. . . as a result he had 14, 000 patents and was very successful…In IT we ride dead horses failing projects a long time before we give up. But what we are seeing now is that we are able to get off them; able to reduce cost overrun and time overrun. That's where the major impact came on the success rate. ” Cabanis, Jeannette, "'A Major Impact': The Standish Group's Jim Johnson On Project Management and IT Project Success, " PM Network, PMI, September 1998, p. 7 ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 32

The Context of IT Projects • IT projects can be very diverse in terms

The Context of IT Projects • IT projects can be very diverse in terms of size, complexity, products produced, application area, and resource requirements • IT project team members often have diverse backgrounds and skill sets • IT projects use diverse technologies that change rapidly. Even within one technology area, people must be highly specialized ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 33

Fifteen Project Management Job Functions* • Define scope of project • Identify stakeholders, decisionmakers,

Fifteen Project Management Job Functions* • Define scope of project • Identify stakeholders, decisionmakers, and escalation procedures • Develop detailed task list (work breakdown structures) • Estimate time requirements • Develop initial project management flow chart • Identify required resources and budget • Evaluate project requirements • • Identify and evaluate risks Prepare contingency plan Identify interdependencies Identify and track critical milestones Participate in project phase review Secure needed resources Manage the change control process Report project status *Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies, "Building a Foundation for Tomorrow: Skills Standards for Information Technology, "Belleview, WA, 1999 ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 34

Suggested Skills for Project Managers • Project managers need a wide variety of skills

Suggested Skills for Project Managers • Project managers need a wide variety of skills • They should be comfortable with change, understand the organizations they work in and with, and be able to lead teams to accomplish project goals • Project managers need both “hard” and “soft” skills. Hard skills include product knowledge and knowing how to use various project management tools and techniques, and soft skills include being able to work with various types of people ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 35

Suggested Skills for a Project Manager • Communication skills: listening, persuading • Organizational skills:

Suggested Skills for a Project Manager • Communication skills: listening, persuading • Organizational skills: planning, goal-setting, analyzing • Team Building skills: empathy, motivation, esprit de corps • Leadership skills: set examples, be energetic, have vision (big picture), delegate, be positive • Coping skills: flexibility, creativity, patience, persistence • Technological skills: experience, project knowledge ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 36

Question • What makes a good project manager? • What makes a good leader?

Question • What makes a good project manager? • What makes a good leader? ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 37

Revision – Questions from Topic 1 • Is it enough to be a good

Revision – Questions from Topic 1 • Is it enough to be a good project manager or do you need to understand the area you are managing? • For example, could an experience project manager with no IT background manage an IT project? • Or, a documentation project (e. g. putting together a tender) with no tendering experience? ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 38

Effective vs. Ineffective Project Managers Effective Project Managers • • Lead by example Are

Effective vs. Ineffective Project Managers Effective Project Managers • • Lead by example Are visionaries Are technically competent Are decisive Are good communicators Are good motivators Stand up to upper management when necessary • Support team members • Encourage new ideas ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Ineffective Project Managers • • • Semester 2, 2004 Set bad examples Are not self-assured Lack technical expertise Are poor communicators Are poor motivators 39

Summary: PM Context ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 40

Summary: PM Context ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 40

Topic 2. 2 Project Management Process Groups ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester

Topic 2. 2 Project Management Process Groups ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 41

Topic 2. 2 Reading • Essential • Schwalbe Chapter 3 • Recommended • PMBOK

Topic 2. 2 Reading • Essential • Schwalbe Chapter 3 • Recommended • PMBOK Chapter 3 ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 42

Learning Objectives At the end of this topic, you should be able to: •

Learning Objectives At the end of this topic, you should be able to: • Describe the five project management process groups, the typical level of activity for each, and the interactions among them • Explain how the project management process groups relate to the project management knowledge areas • Discuss how organizations develop information technology project management methodologies to meet their needs ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 43

Learning Objectives At the end of this topic, you should be able to: •

Learning Objectives At the end of this topic, you should be able to: • • Review a case study of an organization and identify the project management process groups required to manage an information technology project Explain the contribution that effective project initiation, project planning, project execution, project control, and project closing makes to project success ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 44

Project Management Process Groups • Project management can be viewed as a number of

Project Management Process Groups • Project management can be viewed as a number of interlinked processes • The project management process groups include • • • initiating processes planning processes executing processes controlling processes closing processes ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 45

Overlap of Process Groups in a Phase (PMBOK® Guide, 2000, p. 31) ICT 327

Overlap of Process Groups in a Phase (PMBOK® Guide, 2000, p. 31) ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 46

Revision - 9 Knowledge Areas ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004

Revision - 9 Knowledge Areas ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 47

Relationships Among Process Groups & Knowledge Areas (PMBOK® Guide 2000, p. 38) ICT 327

Relationships Among Process Groups & Knowledge Areas (PMBOK® Guide 2000, p. 38) ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 48

Relationships Among Process Groups & Knowledge Areas PMBOK® Guide 2000, p. 38 ICT 327

Relationships Among Process Groups & Knowledge Areas PMBOK® Guide 2000, p. 38 ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 49

Developing an IT Project Mangt Methodology • Just as projects are unique, so are

Developing an IT Project Mangt Methodology • Just as projects are unique, so are approaches to project management • Many organizations develop their own project management methodologies, especially for IT projects • Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan used the PMBOK as a guide in developing their IT project management methodology ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 50

ITPM Methodology See figure in text. Note that many parts of this approach map

ITPM Methodology See figure in text. Note that many parts of this approach map to the PMBOK, but some activities have been changed to meet the needs of the organization. ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 51

Case Study: JWD Consulting’s Project Management Intranet Site • This case study provides an

Case Study: JWD Consulting’s Project Management Intranet Site • This case study provides an example of what’s involved in initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing an IT project • You can download templates for creating your own project management documents from the companion Web site for this text • Note: This case study provides a big picture view of managing a project. Later chapters provide detailed information on each knowledge area. ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 52

Project Initiation • Initiating a project includes recognizing and starting a new project or

Project Initiation • Initiating a project includes recognizing and starting a new project or project phase • Some organizations use a pre-initiation phase, while others include items like developing a business case as part of initiation • The main goal is to formally select and start off projects • Key outputs include: • • Assigning the project manager Identifying key stakeholders Completing a business case Completing a project charter & getting signatures on it ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 53

Project Initiation Documents • Business case: See pages 74 -76 • Charter: See pages

Project Initiation Documents • Business case: See pages 74 -76 • Charter: See pages 77 -78, also shown on next two slides • Note: Every organization has its own variations of what documents are required for project initiation. It’s important to identify the need for projects, who the stakeholders are, and what the main goals are for the project ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 54

JWD’s Project Charter ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 55

JWD’s Project Charter ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 55

JWD’s Project Charter ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 56

JWD’s Project Charter ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 56

Project Planning • The main purpose of project planning is to guide execution •

Project Planning • The main purpose of project planning is to guide execution • Every knowledge area includes planning information (see Table 3 -5 on pages 79 -80) • Key outputs include: • • A team contract A scope statement A work breakdown structure (WBS) A project schedule, in the form of a Gantt chart with all dependencies and resources entered • A list of prioritized risks • See sample documents on pages 83 -90, and refer to them later in the course ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 57

JWD’s Project Gantt Chart ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 58

JWD’s Project Gantt Chart ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 58

JWD’s List of Prioritized Risks ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004

JWD’s List of Prioritized Risks ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 59

Project Executing • It usually takes the most time and resources to perform project

Project Executing • It usually takes the most time and resources to perform project execution since the products of the project are produced here • The most important output of execution is work results • Project managers must use their leadership skills to handle the many challenges that occur during project execution ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 60

Project Controlling • Controlling involves measuring progress toward project objectives, monitoring deviation from the

Project Controlling • Controlling involves measuring progress toward project objectives, monitoring deviation from the plan, and taking corrective actions • Controlling affects all other process groups and occurs during all phases of the project life cycle • Status and progress reports are important outputs of controlling ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 61

Project Closing • The closing process involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance of the

Project Closing • The closing process involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance of the final product and bringing the project, or project phase, to an orderly end • Even if projects are not completed, they should be closed out to learn from the past • Project archives and lessons learned are important outputs. Most projects include a final report and presentations ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 62

Post-Project Follow-up • Many organizations have realized that it’s important to review the results

Post-Project Follow-up • Many organizations have realized that it’s important to review the results of projects a year or so after they have been completed • Many projects project potential savings, so it’s important to review the financial estimates and help learn from the past in preparing new estimates ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 2, 2004 63