- Slides: 13
Tools of Aeronautics
Tools of Aeronautics • Four tools test aeronautics hypotheses – Wind tunnel testing – Computational fluid dynamics – Flight simulation – Flight test • Testing tools were developed only within the last 100 years
Wind Tunnel • First tool to be developed • Used since the time of the Wright brothers • Moves wind past a stationary object instead of moving the object through the air • Advantages – Safer – Cheaper – Controlled environment
Wind Tunnel • Disadvantages – Creation of wind tunnel airflow requires a lot of energy. – Maintenance of machinery, equipment, and tunnels is expensive. – Airplane models must be made with precision and durability, which requires time and money.
Computational Fluid Dynamics • Idea conceived in the 1960 s to run wind tunnel tests in a computer – Initial computers were large, slow, and cumbersome – Computers were able to accurately predict forces and pressures • Computers were able to graphically display fluid forces on an object
Navier-Stokes Equations Aren’t you glad we have computers that perform these computations for us?
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Computational Fluid Dynamics • Many models are so complex that hours are needed, even with today’s computers, to analyze the data. • Graphics present an incredibly large amount of complex information in a manner that enables researchers to quickly and accurately draw conclusions from their data.
Flight Simulation • Two Primary uses of flight simulation Training Research
Flight Simulation How Does It Work? – Similar to CFD, a math model of the test plane is programmed into a computer. – The computer controls a cockpit mock-up designed to look like the interior of an airplane. – A motion system simulates the movements of an airplane. – Computers create scenery for the pilot. – Sound systems and instruments work together to provide the pilot with an extremely realistic flying environment.
Flight Test • Final phase of flight development • Flight testing verifies predictions made in prior phases of flight development • Based on the results of a flight test, an airplane may be tested further using one of the other three tools, or more flight tests may be recommended.
Image Resources Microsoft, Inc. (2008). Clip art. Retrieved September 10, 2008, from http: //office. microsoft. com/en-us/clipart/default. aspx National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2008). NASA Dryden flight simulator photo collection. Retrieved June 24, 2009, from http: //www. dfrc. nasa. gov/Gallery/Photo/Simulator/index. html National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2008). Navier Stokes equations. Retrieved June 24, 2009, from http: //www. grc. nasa. gov/WWW/K 12/airplane/nseqs. html National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2009). NAS software applications. Retrieved June 24, 2009, from http: //www. nasa. gov/Resources/Applications/applications. html National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2009). Computational fluid dynamics. Retrieved June 24, 2009, from http: //www. dfrc. nasa. gov/Gallery/Photo/X-43 A/HTML/ED 97 -43968 -1. html