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Tool: Stakeholder analysis
Tool: Stakeholder analysis Formål Purpose and yield • To identify who the stakeholders are • Prioritizing key stakeholders • Understanding the stakeholders and their perception of the project • Define appropriate actions to best manage stakeholders When do we use the stakeholder analysis in the project? • The stakeholder analysis should be made as soon as possible. Project owner and project manager should prepare the first stakeholder analysis before the team is selected. • Then, the project manager and the project team should prepare a risk analysis as soon as the team is set up to create a picture of the political landscape around the project. • The stakeholder analysis is the basis for development of an attractive project objective, an appropriate and accepted approach in the project, accepted decision-making, organization with the right people involved, targeted communication strategy, identification of key stakeholders and prevention of potential conflicts of interest. • The stakeholder analysis must be continuously reviewed and maintained through the project. Especially if surprises occur, such as stakeholders that react differently than expected, or unexpected or "forgotten" stakeholders appear. Pitfalls and restrictions • The stakeholder analysis is the project participants' opinion, not the stakeholders. Therefore, the analysis should be prepared by several people with different knowledge of the stakeholders and the analysis should therefore be verified among the stakeholders. • The analysis is a snapshot that can change during the project. • Project results and other changes in the environment can change the stakeholders' perception. • Stakeholders can be affected by people who are not immediately perceived as stakeholders in relation to the project. • In areas where stakeholders' perception and behavior is crucial for the project, stakeholders should be involved and consulted so that the project knows the stakeholders' views.
Approach Who should participate? At the overall level the stakeholder analysis must be developed by the project owner and the project manager. If possible, with input from the steering group. At operational level, the stakeholder analysis must be prepared in the project team to ensure quality and that everyone knows the political landscape. How you do it The stakeholder analysis can be carried out with different purposes and different angles. Therefore, in the tool there are examples of different templates that can be used in different situations, but the principles and methods are common. 1) Gather the relevant participants and perform a brainstorm on the topic: Who are the stakeholders for this project? Stakeholders are people who is in contact with or are affected by the project results. Note the stakeholders on Post-it notes, so that a sorting can be made later (one stakeholder per Post-it lap). 2) Sort and prioritize stakeholders using matrix 1, 2, 3 or 4. The selected matrix can be plotted on a flip chart paper, after which the various Post-it notes are placed at the appropriate position. A combination of the different sorting matrices can be used. • Matrix 1 is a general analysis in which stakeholders are placed based on their knowledge and influence • Matrix 2 is used to assess how hard the various stakeholders are affected by a given change. This is an assessment of the impact of change for the individual stakeholders • Matrix 3 is used to map the stakeholders' perception and behavior. Matrix 3 can be created directly from the project's brainstorming, but it can also be generated based on matrix 1 and 2 • Matrix 4: used in projects with major organizational changes The matrix assesses the impact of the change on the individual stakeholder and the necessary involvement of the stakeholder concerned. Matrix 4 can be created directly from the project's brainstorming, but it can also be generated based on matrix 1 and 2 3) Describe the key stakeholders using template 5 or 6 • Template 5: Description of the individual stakeholder is used in projects in general. • Template 6: Description of key stakeholders in the change process is used to describe key stakeholders in organizational change projects.
Consequence of stakeholder placement in the four matrices Hostages must be informed at major meetings or in focus groups. We can use their knowledge and they must be trained or taught. Resource persons must be involved in workshops and work groups. Eminences must be heard through interview or reference groups. Maybe in the steering group. The external stakeholders must be informed so that the project has a good image. The matrix describes how hard the change affects the different stakeholders and how changes are perceived by the stakeholders. One dimension is how vulnerable the stakeholders feel in relation to the change. The second factor is how big the conflict between the project objectives and the stakeholder is. Awaken and involve the positive stakeholders who do not actively support the project. Active support should be used as change agents or super users. Active opponents are the enemies of the project and their resistance must be handled and reduced. You should let passive stakeholders with a negative attitude sleep in peace. The matrix describes how hard the change affects the different stakeholders and how much influence each stakeholder has on the project. The four texts briefly describe how the four stakeholder groups should be managed.
General stakeholder analysis 1) In general, stakeholder analysis can be carried out in three steps. First a brainstorm is implemented, then stakeholders are placed in matrix 1. Finally, the most important stakeholders are described in template 5 below. 1 2 2 2) In addition to the stakeholder analysis in (1), one can also choose to assess their perception and behavior using matrix 3. Finally, the most important stakeholders are described in template 5 above. You can also use the four matrices in other combinations.
Stakeholder analysis in projects with a large share of organizational change 1) In general, stakeholder analysis can be carried out in three steps. First a brainstorm is implemented, then stakeholders are placed in matrix 2. Finally, the most important stakeholders are described in template 6 below. 1 2 2 2) In addition to the stakeholder analysis in (1), one can also choose to assess their perception and behavior using matrix 4. Finally, the most important stakeholders are described in template 6 above. You can also use the four matrices in other combinations.
Matrix 1: Stakeholder knowledge and influence Having knowledge and little influence, must contribute Not necessary for implementation, has no influence Has great influence, great knowledge, must contribute Has great influence (power) but does not need to participate Input from brainstorming. Post-it notes with the stakeholders' names are placed according to the two axes. 1) No or great influence on the project. 2) Not necessary for the implementation of the project or stakeholders with great knowledge to contribute.
Matrix 2: The impact of change for stakeholders Radical change in peripheral area Minor change in peripheral area Radical change in the core area Minor change in core area Input from brainstorming. Post-it notes with the stakeholders' names are placed according to the two axes. 1) Changes in the stakeholder's view as a peripheral or a core area. 2) Minor changes or radical changes for the stakeholder.
Matrix 3: The stakeholders' perception and behavior Positive to the project, but passive Active support for the project Negative to the project, but passive Active opponent Input from brainstorming. Post-it notes with the stakeholders' names are placed according to the two axes. 1) Does the stakeholder relate passively to the project or is he / she very active? 2) Is the stakeholder negative towards the project and the change or is the person positive?
Matrix 4: The impact of change and stakeholder involvement Significantly affected by change, but has little influence Affected a little by the change and has little influence Significantly affected by change and has great influence Affected slightly by change and has great influence Input from brainstorming. Post-it notes with the stakeholders' names are placed according to the two axes. 1) Is the stakeholder significantly or slightly affected by the change? 2) Do stakeholders have large or little influence on the project?
Template 5: Description of the individual stakeholder Stakeholder Advantages and benefits of the project Disadvantages and costs for the stakeholder Position. Stakeholder's view and behavior Measures concerning the stakeholder 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. From matrix 1, the main stakeholders are selected. Based on matrix 2, the advantages and disadvantages of the individual stakeholder are described. Based on matrix 3, the stakeholder's position towards the project is described. Finally, planned measures for managing the stakeholder are described.
Template 6: Description of key stakeholders in the change process Stakeholder Why is it important not to lose the stakeholder's commitment? What is needed to keep the stakeholder's commitment? What role can the stakeholder Measures concerning the play in the change process? stakeholder 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From matrix 4, the most important stakeholders are selected. Based on matrix 4, the three questions are described for each stakeholder. 1: Why is it important not to lose stakeholder engagement? 2: What is needed to keep the stakeholder's commitment? 3: What role can the stakeholder play in the change process? Finally, the measures that the project decides to initiate with the relevant stakeholder are described.
References and links Connection to other tools • • • Objective hierarchy and impact case: The stakeholders' wishes and expectations can have a direct impact on the project's objective. Milestone plan: The analysis will influence who should be involved and when. Which workshops should be conducted and with whom. Risk analysis: The stakeholder analysis can provide input to the risk analysis. Stakeholders can be a direct risk. Agile week plan: The analysis provides input to the weekly plan. Project organization: The analysis shows which stakeholders should be in the project group, working groups, reference groups and steering group. Communication plan: Provides input to target groups. The stakeholders' wishes and concerns are input to the messages which should be communicated. Links • https: //www. mindtools. com/pages/article/new. PPM_07. htm References • The book: Power in Projects, Programs and Portfolio 1 st edition, Djoef: The stakeholder analysis is described from page 117 • The Book: Rethink! – Project Stakeholder Management, Huemann, Eskerod & Ringhofer, 2016, PMI
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