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Today’s Public Health Message Processed Foods are Evil!! The Indypendent http: //www. indypendent. org/2009/07/23/bacon-as-weapon/ http: //childhoodobesitynews. com http: //www. sodahead. com Amy Jussel http: //www. shapingyouth. org/
Processed Meats Hot Dog Emulsion http: //butchersapprentice Pink Slime, Lean Finely Textured Beef http: //upstrm. wordpress. com/2012/01/04/pink-slime/
How? 50% fat: 50% meat trim Bacteria Gone Wild Heat at 100 F http: //www. alibaba. com Centrifuge to remove melted fat http: //blogs. scientificamerican. com Treat with ammonium hydroxide to kill bacteria Add to ground beef to lower fat content http: //www. globalpackagegallery. com
Nutritional Comparison • Hot Dog – – – 54% water 27. 7% fat 1037 mg sodium 11. 0 g saturated fat 1. 3 mg iron • Pink Slime – – – 73% Water 5% fat 66 mg sodium 2. 2 g saturated fat 2. 4 mg
Why? • Used to decrease fat content in meat – Is there enough 95% been to meet world supply? – Price/Greed – By-product utilization vs. animal feed
Pressure to decrease food costs • Food Cost are declining 23. 4% in 1929 9. 6% in 2008
Problem • FDA: Ground Beef shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat as such, shall not contain more than 30 percent fat, and shall not contain added water, phosphates, binders, or extenders. • USDA decided that pink slime was ground beef • Deception, lack of transparency and consumer trust – Would you buy it if it was on the ingredient label?
FDA rejects new name for highfructose corn syrup USA Today, 5/30/2012 • Corn Refiners Association petitioned to change the name of HFCS to corn sugar • Driven by negative press • Rational Product Glucose Fructose HFCS 45% 55% Sucrose (table sugar) 50%
High Fructose Corn Syrup and Obesity www. foodfacts. com
Obesity Barclay and Brand-Miller, Nutrients, 3, 491 -504, 2011
Fructose is Everywhere Product Glucose Fructose HFCS 45% 55% Sucrose (table sugar) 50% Apple juice 31% 69% Grape juice 48% 52% Banana 62% 38% USDA Nutritional Databank, 1987 Beware of the consequences of nutritional recommendations Don’t eat Fruit?
Sugar and Health? § The Real Problem: § Sugar type is not the issue it’s the amount of sugar in the diet that’s too high – Challenge: hard to change consumer behavior • Americans love sweet foods • Could sugar consumption be reduced by slow, long -term reduction? • People reluctant to accept sugar alternatives – Non-caloric sweetners (Nutrasweet vs Stevia)
White Foods = Obesity
Potato: A Healthy Food? • Potato (per 100 g) – – – • Banana 87 Calories (9% intake) 20 g Carbohydrate (10% intake) 379 mg Potassium (20% intake) 1. 8 g Fiber (22% intake) 22 mg Magnesium (13% intake) – – – 89 Calories 23 g Carbohydrate 358 mg Potassium 2. 6 g Fiber 27 mg Magnesium
Glycemic Index The Link to diabetes and obesity? • The glycemic index (GI) is a ranking of carbohydrates on a scale from 0 to 100 according to the extent to which they raise blood sugar levels after eating. (http: //www. glycemicindex. com/ab out. php) Food Glycemic Index Potato 69 -93 White Bread 59 -75 Whole Wheat Bread 52 -87 Sweet Potato 44 -94 Banana 47 -62 Varies by food type, cooking method and individual
Individual glycemic index of 14 participants who ate white bread and were tested on 3 separate occasions. Vega-López S et al. Dia Care 2007; 30: 1412 -1417 Copyright © 2011 American Diabetes Association, Inc.
White Foods Brown Foods
Fat Content per 100 g of Potato Products Cooking Method Total Fat Boiled, Baked and Microwave 0. 1 g Mashed with Whole Milk 0. 6 g Mashed with Whole Milk and Butter 4. 2 g Par Fried/Baked 4. 7 g Fully Fried 17. 1 g Chips 34. 6 g USDA, ARS. 2011. USDA National Nutrient Database
Fat Absorption • Upon frying, water evaporates from the food and is replaced by fat • Fat absorption increased with increasing water content • Initially, the steam in the product prevents oil absorption • Once the product is removed from the oil and steam escapes, oil is absorbed Ø Most of the fat is absorbed into the food after removal from the fryer
Fried Potatoes • Par-Fried – 3 -4% French fry – 4 -7% Seasoned fry – 6 -9% Potato Puff Increasing surface area = increased fat absorption • Fully Fried – 16 -18% fat, Longer frying time = more water removal = more fat absorption
Reducing Fat Absorption • Decreasing water content - Predrying • Rapid removal of the oil from the product before it can absorb into foods – Shaking, Draining, Absorption – Centrifugal fryer http: //www. spinfresh. com
Vacuum Fryer • Advantages: – Lower frying temperature – Lower decrease of heat liable nutrients – Longer oil shelf-life – Lower fat content • Disadvantage – Different color – Different flavor Garayo, J. and Moreira, R. 2002. J. Food Eng. 55: 181– 191.
Vacuum and Centrifugal Fryer http: //www. topfreebiz. com
Fat Reduction in Vacuum and Centrifugal Fried Potatoes • Vacuum Fried Potato Chips = 37% reduction • Vacuum Fried Potato Slices = 43 -57% reduction • Vacuum and Centrifugal Fried Potato Chips = 77% reduction
Fried Chicken with 50 -70% Less Fat
Are there really good foods and bad foods or just bad amounts of foods? What will the next evil food or super food be?
The Next Super Foods? http: //www. thetastespot. com http: //psychiatrist-blogspot. com http: //www. denversdispensary. com/gallery