- Slides: 34
TODAY • What are the approaches to tourism planning • Managing tourism growth
TOURISM PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT Tourism Planning approaches Managing tourism growth
Tourism Policies (Hall, 2000) International Tourism Policies from 1945 -present 1945 -1955: Streamlining of police and customs, currency and health regulations put in place after II WW. 1955 -1975: Government involvement marketing in order to increase earning potential. 1975 -1985: Government involvement in supply of tourism infrastructure and tourism as tool for regional development. 1985 -present i. Reduced government involvement in supply of infrastructure ii. Environmental issues iii. Emphasis on public-private partnerships iv. Industry self-regulation v. Alternative tourism/ new approaches to tourism
APPROACHES TO TOURISM PLANNING • • • Boosterism An economic, industry-oriented approach A physical/spatial approach A community-oriented approach Sustainable tourism approach (system approach)
BOOSTERISM • Boosterism has long been the dominant towards tourism development. • It is simplistic attitude that tourism development is inherently good and benefits to the hosts. • Little consideration is given to the potential negative, economic, social and environmental impacts of tourism
BOOSTERISM • Instead, cultural and natural resources are regarded as objects to be exploited for the sake of tourism development • Residents of tourists destination are not involved in the decision-making and planning process. • Boosterism is still used by politicians who believe that economic growth is always to be promoted.
THE ECONOMIC TRADITION • Tourism is seen as an industry • Government use tourism to promote growth and development in specific areas • Use of marketing and promotion to attract the type of visitors • Economic goals given more priority over ecological & social issues • Limited attention is given to impacts of tourism
THE ECONOMIC TRADITION • Satisfaction of visitors, positive attitudes towards tourists in host communities not answered
THE PHYSICAL/SPATIAL APPROACH • Development defined in environmental terms • Ecological basis for development • Concentration or dispersal of visitors • Visitor management • Physical carrying capacity • Limited attention is given to social and cultural attributes of the destination.
A COMMUNITY ORIENTED APPROACH Community-oriented approach is: • engages with and involve local people at the destination • enhancing their economic livelihoods while…. . • protecting their cultural values and …. . • preserving the natural environment.
A COMMUNITY ORIENTED APPROACH • Development defined as socio-cultural terms • Need for local control • Search for balanced development • Search for alternatives to “mass” tourism • It is therefore a “bottom-up approach”
A COMMUNITY ORIENTED APPROACH • Under this approach, residents are regarded as the focal point of the tourism planning exercise. • Community development • Awareness & education • Social impact assessment • But…….
SUSTAINABLE APPROACH TO TOURISM PLANNING • Sustainable development with its primary objectives “promising, lasting and secure livelihoods which minimize resource depletion, environmental degradation, cultural disturbance and social instability” (Timothy, 1998). • Sustainable tourism development concept has been often criticized for its contradictory goals that never achieved. • Achieving sustainability requires: – – Co-operation Industry co-ordination/collaboration Consumer awareness Producer awareness
Reflections thinking sustainable planning • Global thinking must become a framework for local “action” • Any approach to sustainable tourism planning needs to be based on triple bottom liner • Tourism planning must be rich in theory in order to be effective in the long term
MANAGING GROWTH • What are the reasons for controlling and managing the growth? – Allow residents to adjust – Balance with infrastructure development – Integration with the development of other economic sectors – Minimising the impacts of the increasing arrivals of tourists
MANAGING GROWTH • quality of development • quantity of development • location of development
MANAGING GROWTH Quality • The process for more carefully deciding whether to build things is called EIA • This resulted in raising the public awareness • Many communities have decided that they want such development only if they meet certain standards of quality
Case study: Indonesia • • Divided the country into 6 zones Each zone is expected to become self-reliant Each zone has its market opportunities, Each zone will not compete with each other but rather complement each other
Case study: Indonesia
Final conclusions • Government planners have determined that mass tourism would be inappropriate in most locations • Tourism development is to be directed only to cities and few established tourists areas • Each of the six tourism zones has been mapped with references to its existing & potential • Each zone has been primarily targeted for one or more development strategies on the basis of the type of tourist attracted by its special qualities
MANAGING GROWTH Quantity • Those strategies are not new • Many communities have increased the quantity of development in the areas in order to seek quick fix for the economy • Many developed and developing countries have been successful promoting sustainable tourism through strategies emphasize on quality and location.
Please come. . . but Not too many. . . and Not too often • There is no magic number that identifies the optimal of tourist destinations • How many tourists is too many also depends on when they visit • What the communities need is strategies to control and manage the rate, intensity and type of their tourism growth, so that impacts are favorable to those conditions the community desires • Carrying capacity analysis, sustainable concept approach, & preservation rules strategies
Case study: The Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park, Quebec
Case study: The Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park, Quebec • In 1990, the government of Canada and the province agreed to establish the Marine Park to conserve this exceptional marine environment • In 1995, a management plan had been agreed upon and diverse coordinating committee conduct its initial meetings “conservation is primary goal” • Government recognition of the importance of this Park “Multi-purpose” • Therefore, introduction of modern methods of protecting marine ecosystems
Case study: The Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park, Quebec • Key management tool to accomplish its goals is “districting according to uses” • Quebec identifies four districts from most restrictive to least restrictive; – – Comprehensive preservation Specific protection General use districts • 1997 - discussion paper was prepared concerning control of whale-watching activities in the park
MANAGING GROWTH Location enhancement strategies There are various strategies that communities enhance and enlarge and manage their tourism • Expanding strategies • Divert/dispersal strategies • Concentration strategies
Case study: Bruges, Belgium • Faced with an unacceptable influx of tourists automobile traffic in narrow roads • It is well-preserved medieval city center, characterized by interesting architecture, small shops and cultural establishments. • In 1992 study identifies serious problems • Two types of tourists visiting Bruges • 60% of travelers come by car • Resulted in threatening the environment
Case study: Bruges, Belgium • Report also differentiated the socioeconomic of the two types of Bruges tourists • Overnights tourists tended to spend more locally, have positive employment impacts, spread over the entire calendar year, less dependent on automobile use • The report proposed a two-pronged strategy to manage growth in tourism and its impacts – Concentration model (cultural hub of Bruges), traffic control plan – New Marketing efforts
Case study: Bruges, Belgium 1. Traffic control for a concentration model which has five aims: – Stimulation of the traffic flow within city center – Restriction of through traffic in the city center – Discouragement of the use of car as the best means to reach the city center – Increase of the mobility of bicyclist – Accessibility of administrative, socio-economic entities • The new system prevented vehicles from the Market square
Case study: Bruges, Belgium • An increased emphasis on public transport to the city center supplements the traffic restrictions • Improvement & expansion of parking spaces • Guarded underground now provide 4, 300 parking places 2. Marketing efforts to promote the concentration model; to increase the marketing efforts in the inner city hotels; & convention & conference markets
Final conclusion • The Bruges concentration model was well thought out and has few clear focus/aims • One of the strengths is the policy was based on clear data • Further regulations and monitoring should be continued to realize the effectiveness of this strategy.