- Slides: 20
Timbre Instruments of the Orchestra
The Instruments n There are four groups of instruments: A) n B) n C) n D) n Strings Woodwinds Brass Percussion
Strings n String instruments in the orchestra: Violins, Violas, Cellos, Double basses n All are made of wood but the sizes are different. n Nylon or steel strings are stretched over them. n Stringed instruments are played by using a bow or plucking/strumming the strings with the fingers.
The Violin and Viola n The violin is the smallest member of the string family. n Because its strings are the shortest, it produces the highest sound. n The viola is a harmony instrument and is not often heard by itself. n Because it is bigger than the violin, with longer strings, it makes a sound that is lower in pitch.
Cello n The cello plays an octave lower than the viola. n To support its longer strings, it's more than twice as big as the viola. n To play, cellists sit down and rest the instrument upright against their bodies. n They use an endpin to keep it in place.
Double Bass n The double bass is the largest of all the stringed instruments, and play the lowest notes. n At six feet or even more, it's often taller than the person who plays it. n Some double bassists sit on a high stool to play. n http: //ca. youtube. com/watch? v =Vs 3 y. HJO_n. T 0
Woodwinds n Woodwinds can be made of wood, plastic, or metal. n Except for the flute, they all use reeds to make sound. n All woodwinds are used in the orchestra except for the saxophone. n Saxes were invented later so they are only used in modern pieces.
The Flute n Flutes are usually made of metal, but sometimes you will see flutes made of wood. n The very highest-pitched instrument in the orchestra is a kind of flute, but it plays an octave higher. It's called the piccolo. n It does not have a reed.
The Clarinet n Clarinets are made of wood or molded plastic. n The standard clarinet is a little more than two feet long. n It uses a single bamboo reed to create a sound.
Bass Clarinet n A bass clarinet is shaped differently and is larger than the standard clarinet. n It plays lower notes. n It is played in the same way as the standard clarinet but has an endpin that slides out of the bottom of the instrument to help prop it up on the floor. n http: //ca. youtube. com/watch? v=ai 3 h 6 jx. AM 74
The Saxophone n The saxophone is classified as a woodwind because it is played using a reed, but looks like a brass instrument. n There are four major types of saxophones, each playing a different range of notes: Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Baritone. n http: //ca. youtube. com/watch? v= N 47_Q 33 Pq. J 4
The Oboe n The oboe looks very similar to the clarinet, but sounds very different. n Oboes are made of wood, and their sound is produced by blowing air through a thin double reed at the upper end of the instrument.
The Bassoon n The bassoon is a double-reed n n woodwind instrument. It has almost 8 feet of wooden tubing, bent into a narrow Ushape. The reed is secured in a curved metal tube. Bassoons are the largest woodwind instruments in the orchestra. http: //ca. youtube. com/watch? v= WPV 1 Wr. VUCRs
Brass n Brass players produce sound by buzzing their lips together into the mouthpiece of the instrument. n Their lips act like the reeds of the woodwinds. n Some brass instruments in the orchestra are: Trumpet, French Horn, Trombone and Tuba.
Trumpet n To play, a trumpeter can press down on the keys that control the trumpet's three valves, and he can change the shape of his lips against the mouthpiece. n A trumpet is 18 inches long - but if it were unwound it would be 4. 5 feet long! n Trumpets are at least 3, 500 years old n Early versions of the trumpet have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs.
French Horn n The French horn is balanced on the legs. n The left hand works the valves that help to change the horn's pitch, and the right hand is held inside the bell. n The very first horns were made from the horns of animals. n These horns were used during hunts.
Trombone n Most brass instruments use valves to produce different pitches, but the trombone uses a slide instead. n The player pushes and pulls the slide back and forth to change the length of tubing which changes the pitch.
Tuba n The tuba is the largest member of the brass family and plays the lowest notes. n It's also the youngest brass instrument. n It was first used in military bands in the 1800 s and joined the orchestra about 100 years ago. n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v =z. R_GVUWll. P 4
Percussion n The percussion family includes any instrument that produces sounds when it is struck, scraped or shaken. n Struck percussion instruments include the piano, the timpani, and the xylophone. n Scraped percussion instruments are less common in the orchestra. n Shaken percussion instruments include tambourines and rattles. n http: //ca. youtube. com/watch? v=Tkam. VRYBkf g