Thomas Hobbes 1588 1679 state of nature natural

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Thomas HobbesⅡ 1588 -1679 關鍵字:state of nature, natural rights, fear of death, social contract,

Thomas HobbesⅡ 1588 -1679 關鍵字:state of nature, natural rights, fear of death, social contract, liberty, sovereignty, Leviathan 授課教師:陳嘉銘 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用CC「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3. 0版授權釋出 】 1

人們衝突的根源 1. Competition of gain (toward distrust) (natural equality of man -> equality of

人們衝突的根源 1. Competition of gain (toward distrust) (natural equality of man -> equality of hope) 2. Safety (from distrust) (endless pursuit of domination ought to be allowed him) 3. Recognition of personal honour 4. Anarchy of language “all men be not alike affected with the same thing…we can hardly avoid different naming of them…the diversity of our reception of it, in respect of different constitutions of body and prejudices of opinion…besides the signification of what we imagine for their nature, have a signification also of the nature, disposition and interest of the speaker…for one man calleth wisdom, another fear; and one cruelty, another justice…”(chap iv) 理性能夠確定知道的事情很少,沒有人能完全確定自己是對的,只能 仰賴我們同意的政治領域的仲裁者統一我們的道德語言。 2

自然狀態(state of nature) 1. 沒有一個共同的力量(政府),讓每個人害怕。 2. 人人為戰(“a war of every man against every man”)

自然狀態(state of nature) 1. 沒有一個共同的力量(政府),讓每個人害怕。 2. 人人為戰(“a war of every man against every man”) 3. state of war: 關鍵定義不是正在發生的打鬥,而是在一段 時間中,所有人(1)都充分知道其他人的’will to contend by battle’ (2)而且無法確定別人不會這樣。 4. “In such condition, there is no place for industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building; no instruments of moving, and removing, such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. ” 3

只有下述的passion和reason, 可以幫助脫離自然狀態 1. Fear of Death 2. Advice of natural law 5

只有下述的passion和reason, 可以幫助脫離自然狀態 1. Fear of Death 2. Advice of natural law 5

Law of Nature the advices of your reason for self-preservation. 1. The First Law

Law of Nature the advices of your reason for self-preservation. 1. The First Law of Nature: 如果他有希望獲得和平, 每個人必須追求和平;如果和平不可得,可以用任 何方法,包括戰爭,保衛自我。 2. The Second Law of Nature: 當他人也有意願時,每 個人要有意願(為了自保的必要)去「放下」他的 權利,滿足於他和其他人享有相同的自由。 3. The Third Law of Nature: Perform covenant(justice) 4. 其他:gratitude; mutual accommodation; pardon, punish only for future good; against public contempt, against pride, against arrogance… (All void if you cannot have confidence on others. ) 7

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版權聲明 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者/來源 9 你可以簽約……和自己的滅亡。 文字提供:國立台灣大學 陳嘉銘 10 一群人,每個人與每個人,為了彼此間和平相 處,為了集體對抗外敵……僅僅來自於每個人 都承認主權者。 文字提供:國立台灣大學 陳嘉銘 11

版權聲明 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者/來源 9 你可以簽約……和自己的滅亡。 文字提供:國立台灣大學 陳嘉銘 10 一群人,每個人與每個人,為了彼此間和平相 處,為了集體對抗外敵……僅僅來自於每個人 都承認主權者。 文字提供:國立台灣大學 陳嘉銘 11 This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 100 years or less. 檢索日期: 2016/11/28 https: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/Fi le: Leviathan_by_Thomas_Hobbes. jpg 20