They Say I Say We Say Argumentation in

  • Slides: 45
Download presentation

They Say, I Say… We Say: Argumentation in Civic Engagement Jeffery D. Nokes Brigham

They Say, I Say… We Say: Argumentation in Civic Engagement Jeffery D. Nokes Brigham Young University [email protected] edu CS 4 Meeting Chicago, Illinois November 28, 2018

ARGUMENTATION IN HISTORY

ARGUMENTATION IN HISTORY

 • Historians’ writing: • part of a conversation • a response to evidence

• Historians’ writing: • part of a conversation • a response to evidence • a response to other historians (They Say, I Say) • draws responses from other historians (I Say, They Say)

1. Content Area Literacy: They Say, They Say

1. Content Area Literacy: They Say, They Say

They Say

They Say

TAKEAWAY #1: “They Say, They Say” reading and writing in history classrooms won’t prepare

TAKEAWAY #1: “They Say, They Say” reading and writing in history classrooms won’t prepare students sufficiently for 21 st century reading and writing.

2. Reframing “Informational” Texts: Thinking differently about what They Say

2. Reframing “Informational” Texts: Thinking differently about what They Say

What do students have to say when this is “a true book”

What do students have to say when this is “a true book”

What do students have to say when this is “informational”

What do students have to say when this is “informational”

TAKEAWAY #2: Traditional objectives, instruction, texts, and assessments perpetuate the “They Say, They Say”

TAKEAWAY #2: Traditional objectives, instruction, texts, and assessments perpetuate the “They Say, They Say” mentality in students.

3. A Study of Fifth Graders

3. A Study of Fifth Graders

Did Sherman use excessive force and destruction in his “March to the Sea? ”

Did Sherman use excessive force and destruction in his “March to the Sea? ”

How accurate were Jacob Riis’ pictures and descriptions of poverty in America? Jacob Riis,

How accurate were Jacob Riis’ pictures and descriptions of poverty in America? Jacob Riis, Children Sleeping in Mulberry Street, 1890

What do you typically do during a history lesson? PRETEST • Jordan: I listen

What do you typically do during a history lesson? PRETEST • Jordan: I listen and I try to understand what they’re talking about. POSTTEST • Jordan: Analyze what’s happening with the history that we’re talking about.

TAKEAWAY #3: Students—even young students—have something to say, and they say it when they

TAKEAWAY #3: Students—even young students—have something to say, and they say it when they are invited to do so. Jordan: Analyze what’s happening with the history that we’re talking about.

4. Disciplinary Literacy: They Say, I Say

4. Disciplinary Literacy: They Say, I Say

Historians’ Arguments 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fresh Debatable Evidence-based Rational Engaging

Historians’ Arguments 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fresh Debatable Evidence-based Rational Engaging

Historians’ Arguments • On one hand, Conner claimed that the Shoshone were well armed

Historians’ Arguments • On one hand, Conner claimed that the Shoshone were well armed with plenty of ammunition. On the other hand, Shoshone accounts claimed the Indians were only armed with bows and arrows. According to casualty reports…

TAKEAWAY #4: I have to understand evaluate what They Say before I can formulate

TAKEAWAY #4: I have to understand evaluate what They Say before I can formulate what I Say.

5. Reading Writing Connection in Historians’ Work

5. Reading Writing Connection in Historians’ Work

Importance • Historians’ construction of an argument started as soon as they began reading

Importance • Historians’ construction of an argument started as soon as they began reading the first text

TAKEAWAY #6: Historians’ reading and writing are closely linked • Epistemology • Attention to

TAKEAWAY #6: Historians’ reading and writing are closely linked • Epistemology • Attention to audience • Skepticism/humility • Exploring/arriving • Metacognition • What I Say is tied into what They Say

ARGUMENTATION IN CIVIC ENGAGEMENT

ARGUMENTATION IN CIVIC ENGAGEMENT

Emma Gonzalez “We know that they are claiming that there are mental health issues

Emma Gonzalez “We know that they are claiming that there are mental health issues and I am not a psychologist, but we need to pay attention to the fact that this isn’t just a mental health issue. He wouldn’t have harmed that many students with a knife!”

Emma Gonzalez The “We know that they are claiming that there are mental health

Emma Gonzalez The “We know that they are claiming that there are mental health issues and I am not a psychologist, but we need to pay attention to the fact that this isn’t just a mental health issue. He wouldn’t have harmed that many students with a knife!” y Sa I Sa y y

Argumentation IS and IS NOT • IS NOT to impose one’s will on another

Argumentation IS and IS NOT • IS NOT to impose one’s will on another • IS NOT persuasive writing/speaking • IS NOT convincing another you’re right • IS to honestly consider what They Say • IS to share evidence and reasons for a stance • IS to humbly weigh evidence • IS to change one’s mind in the face of a better argument • IS to work together toward a rational, evidence-based conclusion “The unforced force of a better argument”

 • School security • Support for the mentally ill • Gun access and

• School security • Support for the mentally ill • Gun access and ownership

Florida’s new gun control laws— March 2018 • Raised minimum age for purchasing firearms

Florida’s new gun control laws— March 2018 • Raised minimum age for purchasing firearms • Barred individuals with mental health issues from possessing guns • Barred individuals with certain criminal convictions from possessing guns • not what NRA wanted (THEY SAY) • not what students wanted (I SAY) • a compromise policy (WE SAY)

7. They Say, I Say, We Say: A Case Study from History

7. They Say, I Say, We Say: A Case Study from History

The Great Compromise • Article 1 of the Constitution • House of Representatives with

The Great Compromise • Article 1 of the Constitution • House of Representatives with Proportional Representation • • Number of representatives based on population States with lots of people have more representatives California: 53 Wyoming: 1 • Senate with Equal Representation • • Number of Senators equal for every state Every state has 2 California: 2 Wyoming: 2

The Context • Articles of Confederation • Constitution through the Revolutionary War and early

The Context • Articles of Confederation • Constitution through the Revolutionary War and early years • Federation representing states • Each state had one vote • Union at risk • Shay’s Rebellion showed the United States would not survive • Constitutional Convention • To revise the Articles of Confederation • Delegates of the states meet in Philadelphia, May, 1787 • James Madison seeks to create a completely new system

The Context • Virginia Plan • National government representing the people • States get

The Context • Virginia Plan • National government representing the people • States get representation based upon population • “Proportional representation” • Committee of the Whole • Free discussion • Non-binding voting • Issue of representation

The Challenge • What was the nature of the disagreement that required a compromise?

The Challenge • What was the nature of the disagreement that required a compromise? • How did the delegates work through their disagreements to reach a compromise? • What lessons might be applied to modern politics and civic engagement?

Analyzing the Evidence • Sourcing—must pay attention to author, genre, audience • Most come

Analyzing the Evidence • Sourcing—must pay attention to author, genre, audience • Most come from James Madison’s notes taken during the convention • Contextualization • The nature of the disagreement • How compromise was reached • Through the documents we need to imagine the context

The Challenge • What was the nature of the disagreement that required a compromise?

The Challenge • What was the nature of the disagreement that required a compromise? • How did the delegates work through their disagreements to reach a compromise? • What lessons might be applied to modern politics and civic engagement?

8. We Say: Practicing in the Classroom

8. We Say: Practicing in the Classroom

Classroom Consensus Document • DEBATE vs. DELIBERATION

Classroom Consensus Document • DEBATE vs. DELIBERATION

2. Classroom Consensus Document • Homework: Read overview on gun laws and write 3

2. Classroom Consensus Document • Homework: Read overview on gun laws and write 3 questions • In class reviewing articles that describe the major issues • Homework: write 3 plausible ideas regarding gun use or gun control • In class: groups of three narrow lists to one person • Groups of six narrow list to three per group • Groups’ points are shared looking for common ideas • Benefits and drawbacks of each idea are discussed • Exit slip: What they have learned about gun control • Next day? ? ?

They Say, I Say… We Say: Argumentation in Civic Engagement Jeffery D. Nokes Brigham

They Say, I Say… We Say: Argumentation in Civic Engagement Jeffery D. Nokes Brigham Young University [email protected] edu CS 4 Meeting Chicago, Illinois November 28, 2018