TheoreticalConceptual Framework The theoreticalconceptual framework is a description
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Theoretical/Conceptual Framework The theoretical/conceptual framework is a description about how variables of research interact one another Basic features of theoretical frameworks 1. The variables considered relevant to the study should be clearly identified and labeled in the discussions. 2. The discussions should state how two or more variables are related to each other. This should be done for the important relationships that are the prized to exist among the variables. 3. If the nature and direction of the relationships can be theorized on the basis of the findings from previous research, then there should be an indication in the discussions as to whether the relationships would be positive or negative. 4. There should be a clear explanation of why we would expect these relationships to exist. The arguments could be drawn from the previous research findings. 5. A schematic diagram of theoretical framework should be given so that the reader can visualize theorized relationships. 24
33 RESEARCH PLAN IN GENERAL 1 OBSERVATION Broad area of research interest identified 3 PROBLEM DEFINITION Research problem delineated 2 PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING Interviewing Literature survey 4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Variables clearly identified and labeled 5 GENERATION OF HYPOTHESES 6 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN 7 DATA COLLECTION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 8 DEDUCTION Hypotheses substantiated ? Research question answered ?
25 Schematic diagram of a Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework Communication among cockpit members Communication between ground control and cockpit Decentralization (airlines competition) Additional training of cockpit crew independent variable Air safety violation dependent variable
31 Examples 1. If the pilots are given adequate training to handle midair crowded situation, air safety violation will be reduced a b Additional pilots training Air safety violation independent variable Proper air safety infrastructures moderating variable c Pilots nervousness and diffidence Additional pilots training independent variable intervening variable Proper air safety infrastructures moderating variable Air safety violation dependent variable
32 2. Other examples moderating variable Number of labors replaced a Changing assembly lines to automation More profit to factory independent variable Alternatives of automation system moderating variable b Country environment, pleasant, safe, unpleasant, etc i. e. Method of tourism campaign Types of attraction offered at the tourist sites (increase) number of tourist to East Java dependent variable Accessibility of the sites Facilities available at the sites Price & expense independent variable Attitude of the local people moderating variable independent variable c Country environment, pleasant, safe, unpleasant, etc i. e. Method of tourism campaign Types of attraction offered at the tourist sites intervening variable Attractiveness of East Java to tourist dependent variable Number of tourist to East Java Accessibility of the sites Facilities available at the sites Price & expense Attitude of the local people moderating variable
Variables of Research Types of Variables : 1. 2. 3. 4. 30 Dependent Variables Independent Variables Moderating Variables Intervening Variables 1. Dependent Variables The dependent variable is the variable of primary interest to the researcher. The researcher’s goal is to explain or predict the variability in the dependent variable. In other words, it is the main variable that lends itself as a viable issue for investigation. 2. Independent Variables An independent variable is one that influence the dependent variable in either a positive or a negative way. That is, when the independent variable is present, the dependent variable is also present, and with each unit of increase in the independent variable, there is an increase or decrease in the dependent variable also. In other words, the variance in the dependent variable is accounted for the independent variable. 3. Moderating Variables The moderating variable is one that has a strong contingent effect on the independent variable-dependent variable relationship. That is the presence of a third variable (the moderating variable) modifies the originally expected relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. 4. Intervening Variables An intervening variable is one that surface between the time the independent variables operate to influence the dependent variable and their impact on the dependent variable. There is thus a temporal quality or time dimension to the intervening variable. The intervening variable surfaces as a function of the independent variable(s) operating in any situation, and helps to conceptualize and explain the influence of the independent variable(s) on the dependent variable.
28 Schematic diagram for example : Sex-role stereotyping Advancement of women to the top Access to information Independent variables Dependent variable Hypotheses 1. The greater the extent of gender stereotyping in organizations, the fewer will be the number of women at the top. 2. Male managers will have more access to critical information than women managers in the same ranks. 3. There will be a significant positive correlation between access to information and chances for promotion to top level positions. 4. Sex-role stereotyping and access to critical information will be positively correlated. 5. Sex-role stereotyping and access to critical information will both significantly explain the variance in promotional opportunities for women to top level positions.
41 Book : Research Methods for Business : A Skill-Building Approach 2 nd edition by : Uma Sekaran Southern Illinois University of Carbondale John Wiley & Sons, Inc