# Theoretical Framework and Hypothesis Formulation Madhav Raj Koirala

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Theoretical Framework and Hypothesis Formulation Madhav Raj Koirala, Ph. D Professor Tribhuvan University

Theoretical Framework • A collection of interrelated concepts, like a theory but not necessarily so well worked-out. • It guides research, determining what things to be measured, and what statistical relationships the researcher will look

Significance of the Theoretical Framework • Evaluating the research critically • Connecting the researcher to existing knowledge • Providing basis for hypotheses and choice of research methods • Specify which key variables influence a research issue of interest • Helping to generalize various aspects of research issue

Research Questions (Example) • Does TQM a positive or native impact on job satisfaction? • Does the way that TQM is introduced have an influence on the nature of its impact on job satisfaction? • Does the effect of TQM on Job satisfaction vary by level in the org?

Theoretical Framework TQM (Concept) Job Satisfaction (Concept)

Theoretical Framework Independent Variables Dependent Variables TQM Job Satisfaction • Training • Teamwork • Commitment • Recognition • Pay • Job (challenging) • Autonomy • Supervision Level of Employees Moderating Variables

Variables • Variable is anything that takes values, which may change over time • A variable is a logical set of attributes • Age is an attribute that can be operationalized in many ways • It can be dichotomized so that only two values - "old" and "young" - are allowed for further data processing. In this case the attribute "age" is operationalized as a binary variable. • If more than two values are possible and they can be ordered, the attribute is represented by ordinal variable, such as "young", "middle age", and "old". • Next it can be made of rational values, such as 1, 2, 3. . 99

Types of Research Variables • • Dependent Variables Independent variables Moderating Variables Mediating/Intervening Variables

Formulating Hypotheses • A hypothesis is a conjectured guess about the solution to the research problem • It is a declarative sentence. • It states the relationship between variables in a manner to test it. • “A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation between two or more variables”. (Kerlinger, 1956) • “Hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the expected relationship between an independent and dependent variable. ”(Creswell, 1994)

Qualities of a Good Hypothesis A good hypothesis should always: • Explain what you expect to happen • Be clear and understandable • Be testable • Be measurable • And contain an independent and a dependent variable

How to Formulate a Hypothesis • Research question • Theoretical Framework