Themes of Geography Mr Biddle Geography Geography The

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Themes of Geography Mr. Biddle Geography

Themes of Geography Mr. Biddle Geography

Geography • The study of the earth and of the ways people live and

Geography • The study of the earth and of the ways people live and work on it • The word “geography” comes from the Greek word geographia, which means “a description of the earth”

Geography • Geography deals with the location of places and the complex relationships between

Geography • Geography deals with the location of places and the complex relationships between people and their environments

Five Geographic Themes • The Study of geography can be organized around five themes:

Five Geographic Themes • The Study of geography can be organized around five themes: – Location – Place – Human/Environment Interaction – Movement – Region

Location • Location is concerned with the question, “Where is it? ”

Location • Location is concerned with the question, “Where is it? ”

Find Colonel Sanders

Find Colonel Sanders

Location • Absolute Location- is the precise position something is on the globe •

Location • Absolute Location- is the precise position something is on the globe • To determine absolute location, geographers use a network of imaginary lines around the earth

Location • One of those imaginary lines is called the equator, which is an

Location • One of those imaginary lines is called the equator, which is an important line that circles the earth midway between the North Pole and the South Pole • The equator divides the earth into hemispheres, or two halves, the Northern and Southern Hemisphere

Location • Latitude- Imaginary lines running east and west around the globe (also known

Location • Latitude- Imaginary lines running east and west around the globe (also known as parallels) – Used to measure the distance north and south of the Equator in degrees – The Equator is measured at 0º Latitude – The North and South Poles lie at 90ºN (north) and 90ºS (south)

Location • There are two lines of Latitude that are very important for geographers

Location • There are two lines of Latitude that are very important for geographers to use • These lines receive the most heat from the sun, because of the way the earth is tilted – The Tropic of Cancer (23. 5ºN) – The Tropic of Capricorn (23. 5ºS)

Location • Longitude- (also known as meridians) Imaginary lines that run up and down

Location • Longitude- (also known as meridians) Imaginary lines that run up and down the earth and measure distances east and west of the Prime Meridian (center mark of the earth) – Can be measured in degrees up to 180º in each direction

Location • Grid System- a pattern caused by the lines of latitude and longitude

Location • Grid System- a pattern caused by the lines of latitude and longitude intersecting that makes it possible to find exact locations on the earth’s surface • Absolute location can be found by where the latitude and longitude intersect on the globe

Place • Place is concerned with the question, “What is it like there? ”

Place • Place is concerned with the question, “What is it like there? ” • You want a description of the place

Place • Every place on the earth has its own distinct Physical features (natural

Place • Every place on the earth has its own distinct Physical features (natural things on the earth) – Mountains, Rivers, Valleys, Canyons, Caves, different types of Animals, Weather, and etc.

Place • Every place on earth also has its own distinct Human features (Human

Place • Every place on earth also has its own distinct Human features (Human created features) – Interstates, buildings, cities – People who live there, farming, hunting and fishing, manufacturing, leisure, and cultural background can be used as distinctive characteristics of a place

Place • How do physical and human features of places create advantages and disadvantages

Place • How do physical and human features of places create advantages and disadvantages for human activities on earth?

Human/Environment Interaction • Answers the question, “What is the relationship between people and their

Human/Environment Interaction • Answers the question, “What is the relationship between people and their environment? ” • Geographers are concerned with how people are able to interact and live in certain areas

Human/Environment Interaction • People are able to adapt to their environment for survival •

Human/Environment Interaction • People are able to adapt to their environment for survival • Ex- the Inuit’s in North America live different lifestyles that Aborigines in Australia

Human/Environment Interaction • People also change the environment to suit them – Ex- Irrigation

Human/Environment Interaction • People also change the environment to suit them – Ex- Irrigation systems in the desert • Sometimes the changes that are made can cause problems in the environment – Ex- Air pollution, water pollution, global warming, and waste material

Movement • Movement deals with the question, “How are people and places connected? ”

Movement • Movement deals with the question, “How are people and places connected? ”

Movement • Throughout history people have moved around the earth for various reasons •

Movement • Throughout history people have moved around the earth for various reasons • These reasons can be categorized into two groups: – Push and Pull Factors

Movement • Push Factor- a feature or event that pushes a person away from

Movement • Push Factor- a feature or event that pushes a person away from or encourages a person to leave his or her current residence, city, state, or country; organization, or religion – Ex- Famines, Droughts, Floods, or Military Conflicts

Movement • Pull Factors- a feature or event that attracts a person to move

Movement • Pull Factors- a feature or event that attracts a person to move to another area – Ex- Climate, Economic Opportunity (Gold Rush), Religious freedom

Movement • Movement has now become a part of our daily lives • People

Movement • Movement has now become a part of our daily lives • People use automobiles, buses, trains, subways, and airplanes to move from place to place

Movement • These types of movements along with new technologies, such as computers and

Movement • These types of movements along with new technologies, such as computers and telecommunications, have made us very interdependent as a society • We rely on others for goods, services, and foods (Transportation of goods)

Region • Geographers divide the world into areas based on physical features, such as

Region • Geographers divide the world into areas based on physical features, such as land type or plant and animal life. • They also divide the world based on human characteristics, such as the way people are governed or the language they speak

Region • There are two types of Regions: – Uniform Region – Functional Region

Region • There are two types of Regions: – Uniform Region – Functional Region

Region • Uniform Region- a region that has boundaries determined by the distribution of

Region • Uniform Region- a region that has boundaries determined by the distribution of some uniform (the same) characteristic (the region has the same type of feature throughout) – Ex- the Rocky Mountains, Bread Basket, the Irrigatedcotton belt, Tropical Rainforest

Region • Functional Region- an area that focuses on a central point with surrounding

Region • Functional Region- an area that focuses on a central point with surrounding territories linked to that central point by arteries (roads, railroads) or by people’s wants and needs (jobs, shopping, entertainment) – Ex- the Greater Cincinnati area (the metropolitan area surrounding a city or town)

 Geography and Other Subjects • Geographers must use a variety of different subjects

Geography and Other Subjects • Geographers must use a variety of different subjects to fully understand both the human and physical features of the earth • They are: – – – Science History Political Science Sociology Anthropology Economics