The Work of Teacher Education Policy Practice and

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The Work of Teacher Education: Policy, Practice and Institutional Conditions in England Scotland Viv

The Work of Teacher Education: Policy, Practice and Institutional Conditions in England Scotland Viv Ellis & Jane Mc. Nicholl University of Oxford Allan Blake University of Strathclyde Discussant: John Furlong University of Oxford

The Work of Teacher Education: Policy, Practice and Institutional Conditions in England Scotland Viv

The Work of Teacher Education: Policy, Practice and Institutional Conditions in England Scotland Viv Ellis & Jane Mc. Nicholl University of Oxford Allan Blake University of Strathclyde Discussant: John Furlong University of Oxford

The Work of Teacher Education: Policy, Practice and Institutional Conditions in England Scotland •

The Work of Teacher Education: Policy, Practice and Institutional Conditions in England Scotland • Relationship between social structure and human agency • Mixed method study • Academic work – intellectual labour within the exchange relations of academic capitalism

The background • Historical interest in teacher education as a form of higher education

The background • Historical interest in teacher education as a form of higher education (one that traditionally has had a strong moral purpose). • More recent empirical and theoretical interests in studying academic work as labour within specific social, material conditions. • Specialist theoretical interests in the socio-historic organisation of human activity – the ‘bottom line’, especially the division of labour – OSAT. • Personal and professional interest in what we as teacher educators do – and why.

An evolving project • Phase 1: study of advertisements and job descriptions for university-based

An evolving project • Phase 1: study of advertisements and job descriptions for university-based teacher education positions in England using a variety of discourse/text analysis methods (2008 – 2009). • Phase 2: mixed-methods study of the practices of a sample of 13 HE-based teacher educators across England Scotland as well as their accounts of their work – funded by HEA through ESCalate (2010 – 2011). • Phase 3: extended case studies of 5 of the sample (in England) to develop our analysis of the person-in-context.

 • Jane, Institutional conceptualisations of teacher education as academic work in England •

• Jane, Institutional conceptualisations of teacher education as academic work in England • Allan, The ten job dimensions of teacher educators’ work in England Scotland • Viv, Artefact-mediation in the activity of pre-service teacher education • John, Response • Discussion

Institutional Conceptualisations of Teacher Education as Academic Work in England Jane Mc. Nicholl, Viv

Institutional Conceptualisations of Teacher Education as Academic Work in England Jane Mc. Nicholl, Viv Ellis & Anna Pendry University of Oxford

Rationale and Theoretical Framework Ø To investigate the ways in which HEIs in England

Rationale and Theoretical Framework Ø To investigate the ways in which HEIs in England categorised teacher education as a form of academic work. Informed by sociocultural perspectives on language-in-use and ways in which categories are formed that allow institutions, collectively, to think and to reason (e. g. Mäkitalo & Säljö 2002).

Data Sets and Methods of Analysis q. Membership categorisation analysis Job advertisement texts (n

Data Sets and Methods of Analysis q. Membership categorisation analysis Job advertisement texts (n = 111) q. Word frequencies and key-words-in-context q. Linguistic annotation (word classes) q. Genre analysis Interviews with Ho. Ds (n = 8)

Findings: job advertisements • No differences in categorisation were observed between types of HEI.

Findings: job advertisements • No differences in categorisation were observed between types of HEI. • Teacher education as a category of work was produced as a form of ‘super teacher’. • 45% of the vacancies in our sample did not require any form of research background.

Conceptualising the work of teacher education: • The nouns. . . an experienced, highly

Conceptualising the work of teacher education: • The nouns. . . an experienced, highly skilled practitioner who is passionate about their subject (new university). • The verbs. . . training students on the BA courses (new university); . . . delivering secondary ITT programmes (old university). • The adjectives. . . an enthusiastic and dedicated person (new university).

Findings: interviews with Ho. Ds • In the old (research-intensive) universities the teacher educator

Findings: interviews with Ho. Ds • In the old (research-intensive) universities the teacher educator was produced as a troublesome category – a hybrid category. • … and in the new (teaching-intensive) universities the teacher educator was different to any other kind of academic worker due to links with professional settings – an exceptional category.

Conclusions • Expectations of teacher educators’ work varies according to institutional settings - but

Conclusions • Expectations of teacher educators’ work varies according to institutional settings - but to such an extent that the category teacher educator is no longer coherent or meaningful? • Variation is within as well as between institutions; variation is not related to sectors ('old' or 'new' universities) • Universities did not specify research activity in nearly half of the job descriptions. • Strong emphasis on 'super teacher' characteristics and personal attributes such as dedication, enthusiasm and resilience. • Leadership producing teacher educator as a hybrid or exceptional category of academic worker. Ellis, V. , Mc. Nicholl, J. & Pendry, A. (2012) Institutional conceptualisations of teacher education as academic work in England, Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 685 -693.

Coda: Insights from Australia • The invisible teacher educator? - Nuttall J. et al

Coda: Insights from Australia • The invisible teacher educator? - Nuttall J. et al (in press) Journal of Education for Teaching

The Ten Job Dimensions of Teacher Educators’ Work in England Scotland Allan Blake 1,

The Ten Job Dimensions of Teacher Educators’ Work in England Scotland Allan Blake 1, Jane Mc. Nicholl 2, Viv Ellis 2, Jim Mc. Nally 1 1 University of Strathclyde; 2 University of Oxford

The Wo. TE research sample No. Pseudonym Gender Institution Main Phase/Subject Years Highest Research

The Wo. TE research sample No. Pseudonym Gender Institution Main Phase/Subject Years Highest Research in qualificatio active HE n 1 Gould F England OLD Secondary English 2 M √ 2 Duff M England – NEW Primary - History 6 M 3 Drummond F England OLD Secondary Science <1 M 4 Davis F England – FE Secondary Science 18 M 5 Coodle F England – NEW Secondary Geography 19 D 6 Brooks F England OLD Secondary Science 4 M 7 Brock F England – FE Primary - History 17 B 8 Alloway F England – NEW Primary - Maths 1 D 9 Monk F Scotland Secondary - Maths 7 B 10 Lenton F Scotland Primary - General 4 M 11 Hale F Scotland Secondary Geography 3 M √ 12 Hacker F Scotland Secondary Geography 5 M √ 13 Gresham M Scotland Secondary - Music 17 B √ √

Job Dimensions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Course management

Job Dimensions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Course management Personnel activities External examination at another institution Examination at own institution Marking Professional development Research Relationship maintenance Working with a group of students (teaching) Tutoring an individual student (academic supervision, lesson observation/de-briefing)

Job dimensions (hours): means and standard deviations, May 2010 Work of teacher education: job

Job dimensions (hours): means and standard deviations, May 2010 Work of teacher education: job dimensions N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Relationship maintenance 13 3. 0 31. 0 13. 192 6. 9986 Marking 13 0. 0 28. 5 7. 115 8. 5736 Tutoring an individual student 13 0. 0 30. 0 6. 500 7. 9373 Working with a group of students 13 0. 0 16. 5 6. 385 6. 6525 Research 13 0. 0 23. 5 5. 923 8. 6671 Course management 13 0. 5 15. 0 5. 192 4. 1660 External examination at another institution 13 0. 0 19. 5 1. 500 5. 4083 Examination at own institution 13 0. 0 18. 0 1. 423 4. 9827 Professional development 13 0. 0 11. 5 1. 077 3. 1678 Personnel activities 13 0. 0 5. 0 0. 615 1. 4456

Job dimensions (hours): means and standard deviations, Oct 2010 Work of teacher education: job

Job dimensions (hours): means and standard deviations, Oct 2010 Work of teacher education: job dimensions N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Working with a group of students 12 1. 5 36. 5 18. 458 12. 0632 Relationship maintenance 12 3. 0 42. 5 16. 500 11. 1049 Tutoring an individual student 12 0. 0 17. 5 4. 625 5. 0728 Course management 12 0. 0 14. 0 2. 958 4. 4694 Research 12 0. 0 14. 0 2. 917 5. 1027 Marking 12 0. 0 9. 0 2. 708 2. 9190 Professional development 12 0. 0 7. 5 0. 875 2. 1755 Personnel activities 12 0. 0 5. 0 0. 417 1. 4434 External examination at another institution 12 0. 0000 Examination at own institution 12 0. 0000

Findings • The work of teacher educators in this sample appears to be high

Findings • The work of teacher educators in this sample appears to be high in time to relationship maintenance, which (according to these statistics) appears to be the consistent, defining characteristic of the work.

What is relationship maintenance? Some examples: • Email – from early in the morning

What is relationship maintenance? Some examples: • Email – from early in the morning to late at night and across the weekend; on the move (in cars using Bluetooth); hyperresponsive (audible signals); very carefully-worded. • Home visit to student teacher off with stress. • A whole day structured around interaction with schools and student teachers about sustaining the relationships within and between them. • School placement meetings that take into account personal and perhaps idiosyncratic preferences by individual mentors.

What is relationship maintenance? Communicative activity directed at maintaining and repairing relationships with schools

What is relationship maintenance? Communicative activity directed at maintaining and repairing relationships with schools and between schools and student teachers under the heading of ‘partnership’.

‘The engine room’ “I’m still trying to make sense of my own institution […]

‘The engine room’ “I’m still trying to make sense of my own institution […] there seem to be two sorts of people: there seem to be the people, they’re called the ‘engine room’, the people who teach the students […] And then there is another set of people who do research [. . . ] and they’re sort of these two separate pots of people. Now there is some overlap between them, there are some links between them, so I’m one of the engine room people, and certainly I’m encouraged to do research. . . not insisted upon, but I’m encouraged. And indeed I want to and I’ve already started some […] You know there are sessions which are run by various people on you know writing, on researching, and they’re just open and you just go along if you want to. So there’s a sort of really lovely atmosphere that you can embark on this. ”

Artefact Mediation in the Activity of Pre-Service Teacher Education: Tools for Learning or Rules

Artefact Mediation in the Activity of Pre-Service Teacher Education: Tools for Learning or Rules for Compliance Viv Ellis University of Oxford

Artefacts?

Artefacts?

Triangular representation of a human activity system

Triangular representation of a human activity system

The only way to get an insight into the nature of the object-related activity

The only way to get an insight into the nature of the object-related activity is to understand the material production of tools, the social exchanges among people, and the individual subjective processes that participate in regulating the production of tools and social exchanges. (Kaptelinin & Miettinen 2005, 3)

Observing artefacts in use: what are they mediating and why?

Observing artefacts in use: what are they mediating and why?

Observing artefacts in use: what are they mediating and why?

Observing artefacts in use: what are they mediating and why?

What’s going on? A random name generator projected onto an Interactive White Board intended

What’s going on? A random name generator projected onto an Interactive White Board intended to serve as a concrete tool for stimulating change in classroom interaction patterns in order to facilitate better assessment for learning AND/OR A fun thing to do in a classroom to get children interested in participating in the lesson

What’s going on? Artefact used to mediate student teachers’ learning about the concepts of

What’s going on? Artefact used to mediate student teachers’ learning about the concepts of Af. L Vs Something you can do A ‘rule’ or norm of behaviour

Some insights into the expertise of the HE-based teacher educator? Unlocking the meaning of

Some insights into the expertise of the HE-based teacher educator? Unlocking the meaning of artefacts derived from situations of practice: - accessing abstract knowledge in the course of an intense focus on practice - a tool for learning (ideal as well as material) - but within constraints

Concluding comments Viv Ellis University of Oxford

Concluding comments Viv Ellis University of Oxford

 • HEI expectations of teacher education as academic work are fairly narrow; •

• HEI expectations of teacher education as academic work are fairly narrow; • Relationship maintenance is necessary work – it is the ‘glue’ of partnership, the ‘domestic labour’ of Education departments; • Within the structures and social relationships of academic capitalism, teacher educators are subject to proletarianisation; • More generally, a lack of a view of the future of teacher education as professional education within the university.

Discussant John Furlong University of Oxford

Discussant John Furlong University of Oxford

Questions and discussion

Questions and discussion