- Slides: 27
The Utilization of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Health Planning and Epidemiology Jaime Bech-Nappi and Glauber A. Gonçalves Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - RS - Brasil
Jaime Bech-Nappi MD Ph. D Professor Chairman of Public Health Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG) Nucleo de Estudos em Administração e Saúde Coletiva(NEAS) mailto: //[email protected] furg. br AND Glauber Acunha Gonçalves, MS Assistant Professor Laboratory of Remote Sensoring FURG
Two Concepts: a HIS. . . A HIS (Health Information System) is a “mechanism of retrieval, processing, analyzing and propagate the information needed to organize and operate health services and also to research and planning the control of illness …” (OMS European Regional Bureau 1992)
. . . and GIS A GIS (Geographic Information System) is an “organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze and display all forms of geographically referenced information” (ESRI Inc. 1995)
GIS Structure A GIS that is used for health data administration’s is a HIS. HEALT DATA
Typical Instruments and produts used in GIS Systems GPS - Global Positioning System Aerial Digital Photography Plotter Digitalizer Table
Typical Softwares GIS Systems Simulations Mathematic and Statistical Operations Image Processing Systems
GIS Data Structure STACKED MAP LAYERS: Each layer can representate a phenomena and the layers can be superposed. Topography Soils Urban Areas Water Distribution and Industrial Activities, Census data, Hospital and Health Stations, others, etc. . .
The use of the GIS Data Structure for Health Administration Health and ill-health phenomena distribute in time-spatial dimensions. Each event has his geographic coordinates
In resume GIS COMBINES: Þ GEOREFERENCE DATA Þ SURVEILLANCE DATA Þ MANAGEMENT DATA FOR ANALYSIS AND DECISION MAKING
Health of a country, a region, a community, involves several and different elements, all interconnected. Venezuela Brazil Bolivia Rio Grande City Uruguai Argentina Arc. View Data Radarsat© Image
Epidemiologic Applications: VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES (1) WATER-BORNE DISEASES (2) EXPOSURE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (3) LEAD HAZARDS (4) PREDICTION PEDESTRIAN INJURIES (5) ANALYSIS OF DISEASES POLICE (6) ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS (7) DIFFERENTIAL MORTALITY (8)
Prediction of mortality rates, life expectancy, health condition, environmental hazards, have important consequences to determine national health capacity needs.
GIS IMPROVES SPATIAL ANALYSIS TASKS: VISUALIZATION EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS MODEL BUILDING
GIS APPLICATIONS IN HEALTH CARE PLANNING TERRITORY-DEMOGRAPHIC DELIMITED AREAS, ARE THE BASIS OF PRIMARY PUBLIC HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATION FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
SPACE-TIME RELATIONSHIPS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ILL-HEALTH ARE FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENTS IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE
Sophisticated spatial analysis is related with optimal localization and complexity of resources destinated to each PHS Rural and Metropolitan areas are beneficiated by this scientifical planning.
Percent of Peoplewithlessthan 3 years of instructio Water 1. 5% 3. 0% 5. 4% 6. 9% 7. 7% - 3. 0% 5. 4% 6. 9% 7. 7% 08. 5% - 10. 6% - 11. 8% - 16. 7% - 28. 9% - 80. 6%
Number of housesbycensitarydistrict Estradas. shp Agua. shp Number of housesbycensitarydistrict 2 - 62 63 - 132 133 - 200 201 - 299 300 - 588
GIS IS A POWERFUL INSTRUMENT FOR HEALTH UTILISATION