The USA US POLITICAL SYSTEM
3 Branches of Government The US constitution outlines the system of government in the USA. There are 3 branches of government.
Government in the USA The Legislature The Executive Makes the country’s laws Congress House of Reps = 435 Representatives Senate = 100 Senators The Judiciary Administers the country Explains and interprets the laws and the constitution (runs the country) of the country The President and The Vice-President Voters Elect The Supreme Court and Federal Courts Appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate
The Government of the USA – Task 1 Match the correct heads and tails to make four accurate statements about the American Government. HEADS • The American Government has three branches… • The Legislative Branch refers to the people who… TAILS • …court system that operates in the US. • …of government- Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. • …President of the USA, and it carries out the laws passed in • The Executive Branch is Congress. headed by the… • …make the laws in the US, • The Judicial Branch is known as the Congress (The basically the … House of Reps and the Senate)
The Executive Branch The President, the Vice President and his cabinet exercise the EXECUTIVE function of government The President and his staff are empowered to carry out the laws which are made by Congress. Election years: The President and Vice President are elected every 4 years. 2000 A person may only be President for 2 terms total (8 years) 2008 2004 2012 2016 2020
The Executive Branch Besides running the country on a day to day basis, it is also the President’s job to represent the USA internationally and to he makes the majority of decisions about the USA’s foreign policy and military matters. For example, Donald Trump pulled the USA out of an international nuclear weapons deal with Iran in 2018. Donald Trump pulls USA out of nuclear deal
The Legislative Branch The LEGISLATIVE Branch contains the people who make the vast majority of laws at the Federal level in America. These are the Senate (Senators) and the House of Representatives (Congressmen/women), collectively known as Congress. The majority of representatives in the USA will belong to either the Democratic Party (such as Nancy Pelosi) or the Republican Party (such as Senator Mitch Mc. Connell from Kentucky). How does Congress work?
The Legislative Branch Key Terminology • Bills = proposals for laws that have yet to be passed by Congress. • Acts = Bills which have been passed into law by the 2 houses of Congress. For example, in 2018 the Congress passed a bill into law called the Natural Disasters Tax Relief Act. This law means that ordinary citizens have an extra 60 days to deal with official tax matters if a natural disaster has been declared in the area they live meaning they can focus on their personal safety first What does Congress do? 100 Senators serve 6 year terms. Approx. 1/3 rd are elected every 2 years. 435 Reps Congressmen/women serve 2 year terms. They are elected both at the same time as the President and during “mid-terms”.
Judicial Branch The JUDICIAL branch of government (The Supreme Court) determine whether a law passed is allowed by the Constitution, i. e. if it is constitutional. The Supreme Court consists of 9 judges (commonly known as Supreme Court Justices) who are appointed by a President when a previous judge dies or retires. President Obama appointed Sonia Sotomayor to the Supreme Court in 2009. She is the first Hispanic to sit on the Supreme Court. He also appointed Elena Kagan to the Supreme Court in 2010.
President Trump appointed Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court in 2017. He controversially appointed Brett Kavanagh to the Supreme Court in 2018 following allegations that Judge Kavanagh had sexual assaulted a female when he was younger. More than 2400 law professors from across the USA also objected to Kavanuagh’s appointment. https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=fq. Tmf. YQ 02 t 8
Branches of the US Government As you watch this clip, write in your jotter anything you don’t understand. https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Hu FR 5 XBYLf. U&t=19 s
Describe, in detail, the purpose of two political institutions of the government of a world power you have studied. (6 marks) One branch of the USA government is the legislative branch. The legislative branch makes the laws for the entire country and it is commonly referred to as the Congress. The Congress is split into two different parts; The House of Representatives, which has 435 members and the Senate which has 100 members. In 2018, the Congress passed a law called the Natural Disasters Tax Relief law to help ordinary American citizens following natural disasters. • Judicial • Executive
Separation of Powers/ Checks and Balances Americans feel that is dangerous for the 3 branches of government to be concentrated in the hands of one person. This is why each branch of government is kept separate from the others as set out in the Constitution. This is known as the separation of powers. There are many checks and balances built into the Constitution to prevent any one group from becoming too powerful.
Separation of Powers/ Checks and Balances For a bill to become law in the USA, it has to pass both Houses of Congress (House of Reps and the Senate) and be signed by the President. Even the Supreme Court might see it as unconstitutional (meaning the law does not match up with the basic principles of the Constitution. ) Therefore, each branch of government can act as a check on the power of the other two.
PRESIDENTIAL POWER LIMTED BY… LIMITATION Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces Congress Power of Appointment Congress (specifically the Senate) The Senate must approve, by majority, of all Cabinet Apps, Supreme Court Apps & Overseas Ambassadors Legislative Agenda Congress and/or Supreme Court Only Congress can actually pass laws. The Supreme Court can overturn any laws it deems unconstitutional. Power of Veto Executive Orders Congress Only Congress can officially declare war; International Treaties must be approved by the Senate Congress can overturn a Presidential Veto if 2/3 rds of BOTH houses vote to do so. Supreme The Supreme Court and Court/Judiciary Federal Courts can overturn any laws they deem unconstitutional.
Task 2 Answer the questions fully in your jotter 1. What is the purpose of; a. The Executive b. The legislative c. The Judiciary 2. Who appoints the members of these branches? 3. What is the purpose in the separation of powers?
Branches of the US Government – what have you learned? As you watch this clip, write in your jotter anything you don’t understand so you can ask the teacher once the clip is done. https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Hu. FR 5 XBYLf. U&t=19 s
The US Government and Representation