- Slides: 27
The Turbulent Sixties Romina Angelelli Christian Alfaro Tiffany Gutierrez
The dawn of a new decade brought about a new election. The Election of 1960 was symbolic for the changes that were yet to come in the turbulent sixties.
The Election of 1960 • First televised debates. • Not only about handling of issues but also visual impression • Kennedy and Nixon had similar views in major issues • Due to his charisma Kennedy was an early favorite. • But Kennedy was disliked by the South because of his religious views. He was a Roman Catholic and it would be difficult for him to obtain the Protestant vote.
Kennedy Intensifies The Cold War Despite a focus on domestic issues during his campaign, John F. Kennedy was elected as president and foreign affairs were his focus. • JFK sought to win the Cold War •
Flexible Response �The armed forces needed to be built up �$6 billion increase in defense budget in 1961 �Acquired a strategy known as flexible response �They had more than just Eisenhower’s massive retaliation strategy �more controlled use of the forces
Crisis over Berlin � Khrushchev threatened to sign a peace treaty that would put Western zones of Berlin under the control of East Germany which was being weakened. � Kennedy did not want to give up occupation rights of West Berlin � JFK wanted to continue the defense of Berlin because of its importance and increased the defense spending by another $3 billion � Soviets were aware of American nuclear striking power and on August 13, 1961 they began the construction of the Berlin Wall � No one could leave to the West � Germany was now divided
Containment of Southeast Asia � Khrushchev and Kennedy attempt to win over the uncommitted in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. � Kennedy created the peace corps to supply financial and technical assistance for Third World nations � relied more on counterinsurgency to beat back the communist challenge. � Southeast Asia was having its own political problems � North Vietnam was taking control and JFK decided not to send combat troops in 1961 � but did authorize financial aid and also increased the number of American advisers in Vietnam substantially � Kennedy left the Vietnamese to fend for themselves since it was their war
Containing Castro: The Bay of Pigs Fiasco � Kennedy wanted to keep communist expansion in check � Saw Cuba as a threat because of its proximity � JFK approved the CIA's plan from the Eisenhower administration to utilize Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro � On April 17, 1961 fourteen hundred exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba � without the help of an American air strike the exiles were forced to surrender after 500 were killed � Kennedy did take responsibility for the event but showed no remorse and continued to harass the Castro regime during his presidency
Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis � October 14, 1962 Russian missile sites in construction discovered in Cuba by an American U-2 plane � Missiles launched from those sites could reach the United States in minutes � Kennedy responded by setting up a naval blockade of Cuba until the weapons were removed � Khrushchev eventually agreed to remove them if Kennedy pledged to not invade Cuba � In 1963 the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed to end any testing of nuclear weapons � Both the Soviet Union and the United States signed along with nearly one hundred other nations � Also a telecommunications hot line was established between Washington and Moscow so that the leaders of the two countries could communicate during crisis
The New Frontier at Home The Congressional obstacle Difficult for Kennedy to get approval of Congress Democrats lost 20 seats in the house and 2 in the senate JFK settled for an increase in the minimum wage as well as area redevelopment legislation The conservative group was against any education or health-care proposals gained approval for a trade expansion act in 1962 the New frontier failed to make any progress in congress
Economic Advance � Kennedy worked for a higher rate of long term growth � stimulation of economy came from $6 billion increase in the arms budget � Kennedy's decision to send an astronaut to the moon eventually cost $25 billion � Overall JFK's economic policy was much more efficient than his legislative efforts
Moving Slowly on Civil Rights � Attorney General Robert Kennedy appointed to get voting rights for blacks in the south � voting rights increased exponentially � FBI did not provide protection for volunteers who encouraged African Americans to register � Commission of Equal Employment Opportunities headed by vice president Lyndon Johnson worked on increase in jobs for African Americans � In May 1961 the Congress of Racial Equality sponsored a freedom ride which was to test the 1960 supreme court decision that outlawed segregation in all interstate commerce bus or trains � The freedom riders were attacked by a mob of whites � freedom rides ended when Robert Kennedy convinced the Interstate Commerce Commission to completely ban the segregation
“I Have a Dream” � Kennedy was challenged by MLK to come out openly for racial justice � He began massive protests in the Spring of 1963 � on May 3 rd in Birmingham violent chaos ensued due to protest � the Kennedy administration quickly intervened and ended the violence � In June JFK along with his administration sponsored civil rights legislations for equal rights to public accommodations and also the extension of voting rights for blacks � August 1963, A massive March on Washington more than 200, 000 people gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial. There Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his well known "I Have a Dream" speech � Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963 leaving civil rights legislations on their way in congress � finally a president that provided leadership for the civil rights movement
Freedom Riders “I Have a Dream”
The Supreme Court and Reform � Under the leadership of Earl Warren the supreme court was most active for social change � rights for accused criminals were improved (strongly criticized) � cases like 1962’s Engel v. Vitale which banned school prayer made some think the court was undermining moral values � Many decisions criticized by Americans
Kennedy Assassination: � Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated Kennedy on November 22, 1963, while he was driving his car through Dallas ( ). � People all around the nation were shocked by his death and Oswald’s murder at a prison basement also surprised the American public. � Lyndon Johnson became the new president. � Lyndon proved to be a powerful and effective replacement. He was good at dealing with congress and was able to convince government officials to enact his policies.
Johnson’s presidency: � His first act was to lower the federal budget from 101. 5 billion to 97. 9 billion. � He also convinced congress to reduce income taxes by 10 million which increased consumer spending. � Passed civil rights bill which made segregation illegal. � Johnson worked hard to implement these bills that were originally proposes by Kennedy. � Johnson then ran for reelection as president in 1964.
1964 Election: �As his campaign goals he chose to speak about poverty. � 1/5 of people were living in poverty that’s 35 million. �Johnson increased budget to 500 million for financial assistance programs. �He also set up office of economic opportunity. �Reduced poverty rate by 25 million. �He beat Goldwater by a huge landslide 486 to 52.
Johnson’s second term: �He set up Medicare to give health insurance for the retired and elderly. �Gave 1 billion to improve education. �Passed voting rights act that banned literacy tests. �Increased registered voters from 40 to 65%. �Congress passed 89 bills regarding transportation, housing, education, immigration, etc. �The Vietnam war, however, decreased his popularity.
Vietnam issue worsens: �Communism was a big issue as Americans feared its spread. �Johnson believed in containment and offered aid when Brazil overthrew leftist dictatorship. �He sent 20, 000 troops to D. R. to stop communist uprisings. �Vietnam proved to be the most troublesome. �South Vietnam was under attack by the Communist North Vietnam. �Gulf Tonkin affair in which Maddox ship was attacked convinced Americans to get involved. �Resolution passed to help South Vietnam.
Containing Communism ! US troops in D. R.
American involvement: � Full American intervention in Vietnam happened in 1965. � They did air strikes on North Vietnam which were not effective. � American deaths were 500 a month issue was getting worse. � Johnson sent 50, 000 troops to Vietnam. � Americans only were able to have a stalemate and were progress was slow. � It was evident that communism in Vietnam was getting a firm hold and Americans were having a problem containing it. � There was also much domestic opposition to the war and American public began to oppose the war : ’(.
Vietnam War continued: