- Slides: 25
The Trojan War
The Trojan War actually occurred; the city of Troy fell into the hands of the Greeks. n Archaeologists have found historical evidence of the war. n n Was it exactly as told in The Iliad? – No. It was probably fought over commerce and trade between Greece and Asia Minor. – But Homer’s version (The Iliad) is more exciting! – Some of the characters may have been based on real personalities.
What is a Trojan? n a person from Troy n one who shows qualities (endurance, toughness, determined energy) like those of the soldiers who defended ancient Troy
Where’s Troy? across the Aegean Sea from Greece n also called Ilium, Ilion, and Ilios n a well-walled city with broad streets and beautiful palaces… until the Trojan War n
When was the war? n beginning of the 12 th century B. C. n 1193 – 1184 B. C. n That’s 3, 200 years ago! – B. C. = Before Christ – A. D. = Anno Domini (The Year of Our Lord)
Who are they? n Greeks (Achaeans) – Achilles n Greatest Greek Warrior – King Agamemnon – Nestor – Odysseus – Patroclus – Menelaus n Helen’s husband n Trojans – Hector n Greatest Trojan Warrior – King Priam n Father of Hector – Aeneas – Paris n Helen’s abductor
Who supports whom? n Greeks – Hera – Poseidon – Hermes – Athena n Trojans – Artemis – Ares – Apollo – Aphrodite Zeus tries to remain neutral, but he shows empathy for Priam and Hector.
How did it start? Eris, goddess of discord, was not invited to a wedding banquet on Mt. Olympus. n Into the banquet hall, Eris tossed a golden apple inscribed “For the Fairest. ” n Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite asked Zeus to decide who deserved the apple. n Zeus would not choose. (He’s no fool!) n Zeus says Paris is an excellent judge of beauty and refers the goddesses to him. n
The Judgment of Paris was the son of King Priam of Troy. n He was rather weak and cowardly. n Priam had sent him away from Troy because an oracle prophesied that he would be the ruin of the city. n When the goddesses appeared to him, they each offered him a bribe: n – Athena would make him a great warrior. – Hera would make him ruler of Europe and Asia. – Aphrodite would give him the most beautiful woman in the world.
Who did paris choose? n Paris gave the apple to Aphrodite. n She then took Paris to Helen, the most beautiful woman in the world. n Hera and Athena vowed revenge.
Helen n Helen was a daughter of Zeus. n She was the wife of Menelaus. n Menelaus was the brother of the Greek King, Agamemnon. n See the problem?
Paris takes Helen
The Greeks Respond n Menelaus asks all of Greece to help. n Greek armies set off across the sea to lay siege to Troy and leave it in ashes. n And so begins the Trojan War. n Helen is often referred to as “The Face that Launched a Thousand Ships. ”
Odysseus and Achilles Join Late n Odysseus didn’t want to fight for Helen. – He thought her a faithless woman. – He did not want to leave his home (Ithaca). n Achilles was kept back by his mother. – Thetis was a sea nymph who knew he was fated to die in Troy. – She had dipped him in the river Styx to try and give him immortality. (She held him by the heel. ) n Both of these great Greek warriors were later called (forced) into battle where they played important roles in many battles.
Agamemnon n leader of all Greek forces during Trojan War n sacrificed his daughter (Iphegenia) to Artemis in order to get favorable winds for the ships to sail to Troy n offended Achilles by taking his “prize” (a girl named Briseis) after an early battle
The Battle Rages n Due to the influence of various gods and goddesses, the war went back and forth for many years. n You can read about the war in Homer’s epic poem The Iliad. n Iliad means “a series of disastrous events. ”
Achilles Pouts n Because Agamemnon offended him, Achilles refused to fight. n Then things went badly for the Greeks, and they begged him to return. n He allows Patroclus to fight in his place, wearing his armor. n Patroclus is killed by Hector, who thought it was Achilles.
Achilles Returns n Enraged over the death of Patroclus, Achilles returns to battle. n His mother procures for him some new armor (made by Hephaestus). n He kills Hector and desecrates the body.
Achilles Relents n King Priam sneaks into the Greek camp and begs Achilles to give him Hector’s body so that his son may have proper funeral rites. n Achilles allows Priam to take the body. n After Hector’s death, Achilles does not have long to live.
The Death of Achilles n Achilles was unconquerable by mortal men, but Apollo stepped in. n Apollo guided Paris’s arrow into the only weak spot Achilles had: his heel. n Achilles dies from the wound. n The remaining Greeks decide his divine armor should go to the bravest remaining warrior.
Odysseus Wins n Odysseus makes a speech explaining why he deserves it, and he is awarded the armor of Achilles. n He then devises the final plan to end the Trojan War.
The Trojan Horse n The Greeks pretend to retreat, leaving behind a large wooden horse. n The Trojans, in celebration, drag the horse inside their city as a war prize.
The Trojan Horse Odysseus and many other Greek warriors are hiding inside the horse.
The Fall of Troy n They wait until the Trojans are asleep, and then they come out and slaughter them. n The Trojan War is ended. n The Greeks won. n The Trojans lost. n Odysseus is the greatest hero remaining alive…but now he has to get home…
Sources n Graphics in this presentation were taken from the following web sites: – – – – n http: //www. bulfinch. org/fables/search. html http: //www. pantheon. org/ http: //www. messagenet. com/myths/ http: //mythman. com/ http: //web. uvic. ca/grs/bowman/myth/index. html http: //www. paleothea. com/ http: //www. entrenet. com/%7 Egroedmed/greekm/myth. html This presentation is for educational purposes only; it has not been and should not be sold or used as a vehicle to make money.