- Slides: 27
The Trojan War
The Actual Trojan War • Took place from about 1260 BC– 1250 BC • Archaeological remains provide evidence that there was a war but cause unknown • Scholars believe the war began over control of the trade route between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea between the Trojans and Greeks • Ancient mythology states that the war began over a single woman, Helen, queen of Sparta
King Peleus marries sea nymph Thetis • Peleus had to marry Thetis, because it was prophesized that if Zeus or Poseidon married Thetis, she would have a son that would be greater than its father • Thetis has a son with Peleus, his name is Achilles • Zeus decides to throw a wedding party for Peleus and Thetis and all the gods of Olympus are invited, except Eris (evil goddess of discord)
Eris’ Trick • Eris throws a golden apple with the words “For the Fairest” into the banquet hall • Three goddesses claim the apple (Aphrodite, Athena, and Hera) • To settle the dispute Zeus decides to send them to Paris, prince of Troy, and to let him decide who deserves the apple.
The Judgment of Paris • The goddesses appear to Paris and ask him to choose. • They each try to bribe Paris • Hera offers power and domination over the continent of Asia • Athena offers wisdom • Aphrodite offers to give Parris the most beautiful woman in the world.
Paris Chose Aphrodite
Complications • What Aphrodite did not tell Paris was that this beautiful woman was already married • Helen of Sparta, married to King Menelaus • So, on a diplomatic mission to Sparta, Paris abducted Helen and took her back to Troy
Helen’s Suitors • Helen had scores of suitors, and her father was unwilling to choose one for fear the others would retaliate violently. • Finally, one of the suitors, Odysseus of Ithaca, proposed a plan to solve the dilemma. • He suggested that Helen’s father allow Helen to choose her husband. • It also required all of Helen's suitors to promise that they would defend the marriage of Helen, regardless of whom she chose.
Off to War • The suitors and Menelaus (Helen’s husband) unite with Agamemnon (Menelaus’ brother) to go and bring Helen back to Sparta. • They launch 1000 ships to Troy
Reluctant Soldiers • Thetis was scared of her son, Achilles, going to war. She dresses him as a woman and hides him. • Achilles is discovered when he is seen admiring weapons from a trader. • Odysseus just had a son and did not want to go to war. So he pretended he was crazy. • When they saw Odysseus acting crazy, they put his newborn son Telemachus in certain danger. • When Odysseus went to save Telemachus, they knew he wasn’t crazy.
The Gods Take Sides TROJANS (Paris, Hector) • • • Aphrodite Ares Apollo Artemis Zeus (favored, but stayed neutral to please Hera) GREEKS (Achilles, Odysseus) • Hera • Athena • Poseidon
The Bloody Battle • War lasts for 10 years • Hand-to-Hand combat • There were periods of truce, where both sides would bury the dead • There was no fighting after sunset.
The ILIAD • The Iliad as told by Homer is about a 41 day period in the 10 th year of the Trojan War. • Agamemnon (Greek Leader) and Achilles argue. Achilles refuses to fight. • Patroclus, Achilles’ cousin, wears Achilles armor and leads his men into battle. Patroclus is killed by Hector (Trojan Leader), because he thinks that he is Achilles. Hector kept Achilles’ armor as a trophy. • Thetis, Achilles’ mother, has Hephaestus make armor for Achilles.
Iliad (Cont. ) • Achilles angered over the death of his cousin, challenges Hector to a duel where Hector is killed. • Achilles ties Hector’s body to his chariot and drags it around Troy, refusing to give it back to his father, Priam, for burial. • This angers the gods. • Priam sneaks into the Greek camp and has to beg Achilles for his son’s body. Achilles finally gives in.
After The Iliad • Achilles enters the city of Troy and begins to kill everyone he sees • The gods have seen enough and with their help, Paris shoots a poisoned arrow into Achilles’ heel (his one weak point). • Achilles, the great Greek hero, was dead.
The Judgment of Arms • A contest is held among the Greeks for who will win Achilles’ armor. • The two frontrunners are Odysseus and Ajax. • Odysseus beats Ajax in a close contest. • Ajax, mad because he lost to Odysseus, went insane and killed himself.
The Prophecies • The Greeks decide to turn to prophets to help them destroy Troy • They say that to destroy Troy they need to do two things: -Remove the Palladium (a statue of Athena) from the alter of Troy -Use the bow of Hercules
The Beginning of the End • During the night, Odysseus sneaks into the city and steals the Palladium. • Philoctetes retrieves Hercules’ bow and uses it to kill Paris. • However the walls of Troy could not be penetrated, so another way was needed.
Clever Odysseus • Odysseus comes up with the idea to build a giant wooden horse. (Horses were sacred to the Trojans). • They built the horse and decided to hide 30 men in the horse including Odysseus. • The rest of the Greeks got in their ships and sailed just out of sight of the Trojans.
Caught? • The plot was almost spoiled by Laocoön, a Trojan priest, who guessed the Greeks plot. • “Beware of Greeks bearing gifts. ” • Poseidon, wanting to help the Greeks win the war, sent a sea monster to kill Laocoön before he would warn the Trojans.
The Fall of Troy • The Trojans thinking they won the war, brought the horse into the city and partied. • That night, the Greek ships came back, while the men in the horse got out and opened the gates of Troy • The Greeks killed everyone they could and burned the city to the ground.
Sinful Pride • Odysseus glad the war is finally over is ready to go home. • However, he refuses to give thanks to Poseidon for helping him win the war. • Odysseus says that he won the war with no help from the gods. • This angers Poseidon and he will make Odysseus journey home a hard one.
The Odyssey • The Odyssey is an epic poem that is credited to Homer about the journeys of Odysseus after the Trojan War. • Odysseus spends 10 more years trying to reach Ithaca (his home) • Considered one of the greatest stories of Ancient Greece
What is an Epic? • A long narrative poem • Has a central heroic figure • Contains events of heroic deeds or deeds significant to the culture.
Traits of an Epic • • Statement of a Theme The invocation/prayer to the Muse Beginning IN MEDIAS RES (In the middle) Vast setting Supernatural forces Great deeds of valor and courage A hero of imposing stature
Examples of Epics and Epic Heroes • Epics -Star Wars -Indiana Jones -Lord of the Rings -Harry Potter -Halo • Epic Heroes -Master Chief -Luke Skywalker -Superman -Mario -Link/Zelda