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The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Robert Louis Stevenson
The Victorian Era : Queen Victoria – 1837 -1901 (reign)
Victorian Hypocrisy – a study in duality. Victorian Yays! Empire at its height. Science moving forward. Charles Darwin wrote theory of evolution. Britain policed the seas, stopping slavery ships. Public health act made it compulsory for all houses to have running water and sewage facilities. Cars began to appear. Railways built and spread across Britain. Electric Lightbulb invented. Free Education introduced for everyone up to the age of 10. The Brontës were writing, which is good. Edgar Allan Poe wrote ‘The Raven’ which is the best poem ever. Victorian Nays!
Victorian Hypocrisy – a study in duality. Victorian Yays! Empire at its height. Science moving forward. Charles Darwin wrote theory of evolution. Britain policed the seas, stopping slavery ships. Public health act made it compulsory for all houses to have running water and sewage facilities. Cars began to appear. Railways built and spread across Britain. Electric Lightbulb invented. Free Education introduced for everyone up to the age of 10. The Brontës were writing, which is good. Edgar Allan Poe wrote ‘The Raven’ which is the best poem evs. Victorian Nays! Prostitution hit its peak. Homosexuality still punishable by death. Class warfare raged on. Poor people had no voice, no rights, and (obviously) no income. Children were starved in workhouses. Rich/Poor divide was huge. Jack the Ripper prowled the streets. Pollution was high, leading to ‘pea-soupers’. Religious zeal at all time high. Child Labour was rife throughout London. Pornography almost as popular as it is today. Social conventions so strict that criminal underworld developed deeper and deeper. Outward appearance of dignity was valued more than genuine humanity.
Gothic texts Crime thrillers and detective stories abounded.
Gothic texts Crime thrillers and detective stories abounded.
Gothic texts So did stories of insanity, emotional deprivation and extreme bi-polar disorder.
Gothic texts Crime thrillers and detective stories abounded. Dark streets – no CCTV – no motorised transport for police – no phones – no fingerprinting system – no understanding of DNA – bad visibility and shadowy cobbled streets with minimal lighting all give rise to a jolly good place to go murdering. Add to this illicit affairs, prostitution, brothels, gambling, alcoholism, pornography and all those other virtues of humanity – it’s no wonder writers found inspiration really.
Plus…Darwin gave the world his Theory of Evolution which suggested that perhaps we did not come from God, but evolved from apes. People were shocked – to say the least – at the thought that we might have something in common with these primate beasts.
Adam and Eve.
Not Adam and Eve.
The Victorian era and scientific experimentation � Many people saw it as an attack on religion, because the book made it impossible to believe that God created the world in seven days. � Darwin put forward theory that all life, including humans, has evolved from more primitive forms. � The book's release came at a time when many people saw science and a belief in religion and the supernatural as being at odds with each another. � A lot felt they had to choose between the two. And many believed that science had become dangerous and was meddling in matters which only God had control over.
Nature versus the supernatural � Closely linked to the Victorians' increasing sense of the conflict between science and religion was the idea that humans have a dual nature. � Victorians were ‘respectable’ people. Reputation was considered very important and people were expected to repress some of their more ‘natural’ instincts. (sexuality/ violence) � On the one hand, they saw the calm, rational, everyday normality of family life and employment; on the other, fantasies, nightmares, anger and violence. � It was the explainable versus the inexplicable; the natural versus the supernatural; good versus evil. This is the duality the novel explores.
Nature versus the supernatural �The notorious Jack the Ripper murders occurred in London in 1888. In the minds of the Victorians, they underlined the Jekyll and Hyde duality of human nature, especially as there was discussion about the murderer being highly educated, or even of royal birth.
Nature versus the supernatural Yet in a century seemingly built on reason there arose a profound interest in the supernatural. Even a new technology was coupled with the public's interest in ghosts as "spirit photographs, " clever fakes created by using double exposures, became popular novelty items.
Any successful media that’s produced for entertainment, if it is aiming to shock or to criticise, has to play on the fears of its contemporary audience. What we all do behind closed doors was one of the biggest fears in Victorian society – second perhaps only to the fear of being caught behind closed doors yourself.
Victorian society was also just beginning to get to grips with sexuality, and the thought that maybe we should be ashamed of what we desire, sexual or otherwise.
If you knew you would get away with it, what ‘crime’ would you commit? Lesser than that – if you knew nobody could hear you, and nobody WOULD hear you, what would you say about another person in this room? Have you said it to their face? Robert Louis Stevenson, as with many authors of the time, knew that repressed desire was a critical feature of Victorian England.
Are these Victorian social anxieties relevant today? Do you agree with the following statements? 1 - strongly agree 2 - agree 3 - don’t know 4 - disagree 5 - strongly disagree
� Science is scary
� People in society have 2 sides- one respectable and fair, one mean and evil
� If you cannot explain something- it’s God’s work
� It is important to hide some aspects of your personality and act respectable at all times
Robert Louis Stevenson 1850 -94 � Robert Louis Stevenson was a famous Victorian author. � � � � He mainly wrote mystery and adventure stories, and his books are still read and enjoyed today. Robert Louis Stevenson was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1850. His family were wealthy and, as a child, he was looked after by his nanny, Alison Cunningham. Robert Louis Stevenson was a sickly child. He was exceedingly thin and frail, and he suffered with coughs and fevers. Treasure island was first published as a book in 1883. It was very successful and turned Robert Louis Stevenson into a well-known writer. Robert Louis Stevenson continued to experience health problems as an adult. He suffered with chest infections and was often so ill he couldn’t leave his bed. In 1886 he wrote both The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and Kidnapped. Much of the writing was done from his sickbed. In December 1894, Robert Louis Stevenson died. He was only 44 years old. He also rocked a hipster tashe.
� Why might Stevenson’s health influence a novel?
The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Can you tell what the book is about? Who are we introduced to? What adjective has been used? What does it suggest? Can we tell the genre?
NAMES! Dr Jekyll � do we get any hints about his/ her character? � Can we take any inspiration from other languages? � Break it into syllables? The name Jekyll suggests… Mr Hyde � What does this name suggest? � Does it have any connotations? � Can we tell anything about his character? The name Hyde suggests…
The exam: Understanding Prose (Jekyll and Hyde) In order to answer the questions you will need to: � Know the sequence of events in the text. E. g. Outline the key events that lead up to/ lead on from the extract. � Understand themes of the text and how they are presented throughout the novel. Eg. Explain how the writer presents secrecy in the extract. � Analyse the language and discuss how the characters are presented. Eg. From the extract, what do you learn about the character of Dr Jekyll?
Story of the Door � One Sunday evening Mr. Utterson, a lawyer, and his friend Mr. Richard Enfield � � � are taking their weekly stroll when they chance to walk down a side street in a busy part of London. On recognizing the neighborhood and seeing a particularly shabby door, with neither a bell nor knocker, Enfield remembers an event that he had witnessed there one early winter morning. He tells Utterson “a very odd story. ” He was just passing by when he saw a man run into and knock down a young girl when their paths crossed at the corner. The horrible thing is that the man just kept on walking, right over the screaming girl. Enfield was so upset that he ran after the man, a Mr. Hyde, and brought him back to the spot where the girl was lying on the pavement. Although the girl was not hurt, her family and the people who had gathered took such a dislike to the man’s appearance that they began to threaten him. In order to appease them, Hyde agreed to pay a fine of 100 pounds. He went through this particular door to get some cash and a check, signed by another man, an upstanding citizen. Utterson asks if Enfield has been exactly precise in the details of the story because he has heard of this Mr. Hyde. He knows that this door is connected to the home of his friend and client Dr. Jekyll.
The characters Mr Utterson: �Wealthy �Well respected �Reserved/ almost boring �Traditional Victorian �People nurture a fond closeness to him �Mr Enfield is a close friend who looks forward to their walks
Description of the House
First Instance of violence
Fear is created
Quick Quiz: Search for Mr Hyde
A: Whose will does Utterson read? (1) All his possessions were to pass on to his friend_____? (1) Hyde would also inherit his possessions if …? (2) How does Utterson feel about this? Justify your response (2) Who does he visit to talk about Hyde? (1) How does Dr Lanyon feel about Jekyll’s recent experiments? Justify your response. (2) Bonus question: What might Utterson’s nightmare foreshadow? (2) 1. B: 2. What event is replayed in Utterson’s dream? (1) 3. What does he decide to do? (1) 4. Does Utterson have the same immense dislike for Hyde as the other characters? Justify your response. (2) 5. What does he think is happening between Jekyll and Hyde? (2) 6. Is Poole surprised that Hyde is on the grounds? Justify your answer. (2) 7. What are Poole and the other servants ordered to do? (1) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Bonus question: So Hyde has a key to Jekyll’s home. What could this mean? (1) Total = 21
Search for Mr Hyde �Upon returning to his home, Mr. Utterson retrieves the will of Dr. Jekyll from his safe. It stipulates that all of his estate is to pass into the hands of his friend, Edward Hyde, upon his death or disappearance for a period of three months. Mr. Utterson does not like the terms of the will and begins to fear that Jekyll is being blackmailed. He visits Dr. Lanyon, another mutual friend, to inquire if he has met Hyde. �That night he cannot sleep as he imagines the worst about Hyde. He decides he has to meet Hyde in order to clear up the mystery.
�From that day he takes a post in the street to catch Mr. Hyde coming or going from the house. � One evening his patience is rewarded, and he accosts Mr. Hyde. After this encounter, Utterson tries to understand why Hyde creates such an effect of fear, loathing, and disgust. He fears for his friend and decides to check on him. �Utterson questions the butler about the comings and goings of Hyde. He’s told that Hyde is never on this side of the house; he only uses the laboratory. �Utterson leaves for home with a heavy heart. He wonders what Jekyll has done that would account for his relationship with Hyde.
Analysis: Search for Mr Hyde
That evening Mr. Utterson came home to his bachelor house in sombre spirits and sat down to dinner without relish. It was his custom of a Sunday, when this meal was over, to sit close by the fire, a volume of some dry divinity on his reading-desk, until the clock of the neighbouring church rang out the hour of twelve, when he would go soberly and gratefully to bed. Identify any Gothic vocabulary in this extract. How does Utterson represent Victorian society in this extract?
Mr Utterson’s Gothic Dream… Six o'clock struck on the bells of the church that was so conveniently near to Mr. Utterson's dwelling, and still he was digging at the problem. Hitherto it had touched him on the intellectual side alone; but now his imagination also was engaged, or rather enslaved; and as he lay and tossed in the gross darkness of the night and the curtained room, Mr. Enfield's tale went by before his mind in a scroll of lighted pictures. He would be aware of the great field of lamps of a nocturnal city; then of the figure of a man walking swiftly; then of a child running from the doctor's; and then these met, and that human Juggernaut trod the child down and passed on regardless of her screams. Or else he would see a room in a rich house, where his friend lay asleep, dreaming and smiling at his dreams; and then the door of that room would be opened, the curtains of the bed plucked apart, the sleeper recalled, and lo! there would stand by his side a figure to whom power was given, and even at that dead hour, he must rise and do its bidding. The figure in these two phases haunted the lawyer all night; and if at any time he dozed over, it was but to see it glide more stealthily through sleeping houses, or move the more swiftly and still the more swiftly, even to dizziness, through wider labyrinths of lamplighted city, and at every street-corner crush a child and leave her screaming. And still the figure had no face by which he might know it; even in his dreams, it had no face, or one that baffled him and melted before his eyes; and thus it was that there sprang up and grew apace in the lawyer's mind a singularly strong, almost an inordinate, curiosity to behold the features of the real Mr. Hyde. If he could but once set eyes on him, he thought the mystery would lighten and perhaps roll altogether away, as was the habit of mysterious things when well examined.
Meeting Mr Hyde “Mr. Hyde shrank back with a hissing intake of the breath” What does this remind you of?
Meeting Mr Hyde Look at the conversation between Hyde and Utterson. Does Hyde say, or do anything particularly malicious or unpleasant? Why do you think Stevenson presents him this way?
Utterson � Patient: waiting ‘some minutes’ � Alert: aware of footsteps ‘drawing near’ � A man of habit: ‘nightly patrols’ � Observant : noticing minute details both of the setting and of Mr Hyde � Aware of approaching danger: withdrawing ‘into the entry of the court’ � Brave: ‘stepped out and touched’ � Confident and forthright: ‘Mr Hyde, I think? ’ � Successful and educated: a lawyer � Self – assured and opinionated: ‘- you must have heard my name’ � Presumptuous: ‘I thought you might admit me’
Mr Hyde: Holiday Homework (Notes) �Compose a character sketch of Mr Hyde from what you have read so far. �Use of adverbs, alliteration, etc.
Holiday Homework: Due first lesson �By referring closely to the following passage, select words or phrases used to create suspicion �(Hint: Anything strange or sneaky that the characters do)
Mr Utterson had been some minutes at his post, when he was aware of an odd, light footstep drawing near. In the course of his nightly patrols, he had long grown accustomed to the quaint effect ith which the footfalls of a single person, while he is still a great way off, suddenly spring out distinct from the vast hum and clatter of the city. Yet his attention had never before been so sharply and decisively arrested; and it was with a strong, superstitious prevision of success that he withdrew into the entry of the court. The steps drew swiftly nearer, and swelled out suddenly louder as they turned the end of the street. The lawyer, looking forth from the entry, could soon see what manner of man he had to deal with. He was small and very plainly dressed, and the look of him, even at that distance, went somehow strongly against the watcher’s inclination. But he made straight for the door, crossing the roadway to save time; and as he came, he drew a key from his pocket like one approaching home. Mr Utterson stepped out and touched him on the shoulder as he passed. “Mr Hyde, I think? ” Mr Hyde shrunk back with a hissing intake of the breath. But his fear was only momentary; and though he did not look the lawyer in the face, he answered coolly enough: “That is my name. What do you want? ” “I see you are going in, ” returned the lawyer. “I am an old friend of Dr Jekyll’s— Mr Utterson of Gaunt Street—you must have heard my name; and meeting you so conveniently, I thought you might admit me. ” “You will not find Dr Jekyll; he is from home, ” replied Mr Hyde, blowing in the key. And then suddenly, but still without looking up, “How did you know me? ” he asked.
Dr Jekyll was Quite at Ease � A few weeks later Dr. Jekyll hosts a dinner party for several friends, including Utterson. After the other guests leave, Utterson questions Jekyll about the terms of his will. � Utterson never “approved” of this will, and lets Jekyll know that he has been “learning something” about Hyde, whom he describes as “abominable. ” � Jekyll protests that Utterson does not understand his strange situation and assures him that he can get rid of Hyde whenever he chooses. Jekyll also requests that if anything should happen to him, Utterson will take care of Hyde, make sure his rights are protected. � Utterson agrees even though he vows that he will never like the man.
Holiday homework: �By referring the following passage, show Stevenson has created a sense of mystery. �P. 18 Starting from… “ O, I know he’s a good fellow…” �To … “this is a private matter, and I beg of you to let it sleep. ” (p. 19)
Holiday Homework: Jekyll �Compose a character sketch of Dr Jekyll from what you have read so far. �Does the image of Jekyll’s home tell you anything extra.
Plan this essay: Holiday Homework �Essay Title: How and why does Stevenson make Mr Utterson a more interesting character than we first think in the opening chapters of ‘The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’? �DO NOT WRITE THE ESSAY< JUST WORK ON THE PLAN
Picking apart the question: How and why does Stevenson make Mr Utterson a more interesting character than we first think in the opening chapters of ‘The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’? How: What are the techniques used – remember not just to talk about the language that Stevenson uses (although this will be a major part of it!) but also the structure of the story and Utterson’s position as a mirror to the audience. Why: What is Robert Louis Stevenson trying to achieve, and how does presenting Utterson like this help him achieve it?
Picking apart the question: How and why does Stevenson make Mr Utterson a more interesting character than we first think in the opening chapters of ‘The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’? More interesting: You don’t have to find Utterson interesting (although he is pretty interesting) but look at why he’s more interesting than we first think!
Picking apart the question: How and why does Stevenson make Mr Utterson a more interesting character than we first think in the opening chapters of ‘The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’? Remember to use this language in your answer. Don’t get caught in the trap of writing about this story like it actually happened! Stevenson is an author trying to make a point – perhaps he’s giving us an allegory here about the way his society treated people, and the way that human nature is oppressed. Perhaps. At any rate, it’s a fictional story!
Carew murder & Incident of the Letter: Exercise �On handout
The Duality of Man � Duality is a key theme within the novella, closely linked to the idea of good versus evil. � Jekyll’s scientific work involves separating the good and evil within himself. � He does this for selfish reasons, sparked by his desire to indulge his darker desires and fancies, while still maintaining his outwardly respectable image, without any sense of shame or guilt. � His experiment is a failure in one sense, as he does not manage to distil two separate and wholly opposite entities of good and evil. � He remains a mixture of good and evil in his normal state while managing to release his evil self as Hyde.
�One debate centres on whether this evil self represents a small part of all our personalities or whether it represents the core of our being, which is kept in check and under control by the civilizing norms and influences of society. �The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde seems to argue that once unleashed, evil is an uncontainable force which dominates and diminishes good. �As Hyde grows in force and strength, Jekyll is seen to weaken.
� It is the Jekyll/Hyde relationship that best explores theme of duality of man, but it is also explored throughout the novella in other ways; for example, in the way Utterson is portrayed at the very beginning and also in the contrasting natures of the lawyer and his distant cousin, Enfield. � It is reflected in the structural split between first-and-third -person narrations, and symbolically through the description of Jekyll’s sprawling residence. � The building’s well-presented, ornate front entrance symbolizes the upright Jekyll, contrasting with the dilapidated and shabby rear entrance, which represents Hyde. � These two aspects of the house interconnect, and the rooms and passages within are described as a ‘labyrinth’. � The house could thus be seen as a metaphor for the complex workings of the human mind, home to both good and evil possibilities.
Group: Led by Minette �By using the characters of Jekyll and Hyde; and Jekyll’s house show the theme of duality of man is explored in the novella.
ASSIGNMENT �Write a paragraph exploring how Stevenson links theme of duality of man with the description of Jekyll’s residence. Try to include some the words below in your answer: description rundown possesses evil labyrinth complicated Well-presented metaphor good Duality of man intricate Brain. �Always relate your answer to the exam question. When discussing themes, make sure you keep your answer relevant and do not stray off into discussion of other, unrelated themes in the novel.
Remarkable Incident of Dr Lanyon �Hyde is still missing. �There is a huge public reaction to Sir Danvers Carew’s murder and a reward is offered for Hyde’s capture. �Jekyll is transformed for two months, becoming much more sociable and carrying out acts of charity and kindness. �He throws a dinner party, which is attended by Utterson and Lanyon. It is like old times. �This stops abruptly, however, and he becomes reclusive again, refusing to see anyone.
� Utterson visits Lanyon and is appalled to find him a terrified, nervous wreck, who seems close to death. – “He had his death-warrant written legibly upon his face. The rosy man had grown pale; his flesh had fallen away; he was visibly balder and older; and yet it was not s much these tokens of swift physical decay that arrested the lawyer’s notice, as a look in the eye and the quality of manner that seemed to testify to some deep-seated terror of the mind. ” � In this chapter, Lanyon claims to have “had a shock…and I shall never recover”. � At the very mention of Jekyll’s name, he becomes emotional and tells Utterson that he does not want to even hear the name. � He explains that all will be revealed after he dies.
�Utterson writes to Jekyll, telling him of Lanyon’s situation. �The reply worries Utterson as Jekyll states that he wants to left alone to deal with his own terrible sufferings, which he acknowledges are of his own making. – “I mean from henceforth to lead a life of extreme seclusion; you must not be surprised, nor must you doubt my friendship, if my door is often shut even to you. You must suffer me to go my own dark way. I have brought on myself a punishment and a danger that I cannot name. If am the chief of sinners, I am the chief of sufferers also. ”
� Within three weeks, Lanyon dies. � On the night of the funeral, Utterson opens a package from Lanyon, which contains instructions that he should not open the papers within it until Jekyll’s death or disappearance. � Utterson resists the urge to open and read the contents, despite being greatky tempted. � He visits Jekyll but is “relieved to be denied admittance”. � Poole reveals that Jekyll is now spending the vast majotiry of his time in a room above his laboratory and is very rarely seen.
Friend of Jekyll and Utterson Scientist and well - respected gentleman Narrates chapter 9 Dies after watching transformation Dr Hastie Lanyon Traditional, rational scientist Opposes Jekyll’s views
Dr Hastie Lanyon �Lanyon first appears in Chapter 2, when Utterson visits to ask him for information about Hyde. �When he appears again in Chapter 6, Utterson is shocked at the state he finds him in, which the reader discovers later is the result of having watched Hyde transform back into Jekyll. �Lanyon then provides the narration in Chapter 9, although already dead, through his letter to Utterson in which he reveals his attempts to help Jekyll and the reasons for his own sudden decline and resulting death.
�Lanyon is a well-respected and successful doctor. �Chapter 2 reveals a lot about his relationship with Utterson and Jekyll. � His friendship with Utterson goes back to when they were both ‘old mates both at school and college’ (CH 2). They are ‘thorough respecters of…each other’ (CH 2) who also enjoy each other’s company. They share similar interests and values as well as a common friend in Jekyll. �However, a tension is established early on when Lanyon confesses that he sees little of Jekyll, despite what Utterson calls, ‘a bond of common interest’ (their profession)(CH 2). It is “more than ten years since Henry Jekyll became too fanciful” (CH 2) for Lanyon, who feels his former close friend went “wrong in mind” (CH 2).
�Lanyon is scathing of Jekyll's “unscientific balderdash” (CH 2) and discussion of this difficult topic causes him to become very angry. �He is in professional opposition to Jekyll’s ideas and methodologies, and is clearly identified as a man of traditional and rational beliefs. �The description of Lanyon in Chapter 6 contrasts greatly with that in Chapter 2. Whereas before he was ‘a hearty, healthy, red-faced gentleman, with a shock of hair’ (CH 2), he is now pale, drawn, visibly balder and older. The difference could not be more striking. �Having witnessed Hyde’s transformation, the formerly boisterous and theatrical Lanyon is now a nervous and shrunken wreck, gladly awaiting death.
� Utterson notices a deep-rooted terror in his friend and mistakenly believes Lanyon knows he has a terminal illness, ironically stating: “the knowledge is more than he can bear” (CH 6). � It is true that Lanyon has learned something that has overpowered and destroyed him. However, it is not related to his own health, but the sight of Hyde as his features ‘seemed to melt and alter’ (CH 9) becoming Jekyll. � It is a vision that forces him to react with horror and terror. � This phenomena shatters Lanyon’s views and understanding of the world. Although he listens to Jekyll for an hour and sees theory in action, even as a scientist Lanyon is unable to accept of believe what has happened. � This could be interpreted as Lanyon failing to accept thee darker aspects of his own nature.
� Knowledge and its pursuits has been his profession and now it is his ruin, as he admits “if we knew all, we should be glad to get away” (CH 6). � It is important to note, however, that Lanyon plays a significant role in his won down fall. While it is clear that he is deliberately targeted by Hyde’s scheme and feels a sense of duty to help a former close friend, it is equally clear that his decision to observe Hyde change back into Jekyll is completely his own. � Hyde’s offer is an honest one, warning that he will be “blasted by a prodigy to stagger the unbelief of Satan” (CH 9) and yet Lanyon chooses to watch, cynically stating that he has gone too far to turn back. � Hyde himself identifies “greed of curiosity” (CH 9) as Lanyon’s motivation. The outcome – Lanyon’s ruin – is absolute. As he says, he will never recover and nothing can be done to prevent his death.
Exercise: Complete the table below to analyse the language used at the end of Chapter 9 to describe the effect of Hyde’s transformation on Lanyon’s life. Add more quotations to the table. (10) Due 22 October Quotation Lang Device Effect ‘My life is shaken to its roots’ personification This suggests that Lanyon’s understanding of the world is revealed to be completely wrong. With the foundations ‘sleep has left me’ ‘the deadliest terror sits by me at all hours of the day’
The Last Night � One evening Poole arrives at Mr. Utterson’s home, saying that he fears there has been foul play. He begs Utterson to accompany him to check on Dr. Jekyll. Arriving at the house, Utterson finds the frightened servants huddled together in the entry hall. � Poole and Utterson go to the door of Jekyll’s study where Poole announces that Utterson has come to visit. The person within answers that he cannot see anyone. Then Poole confers with Utterson saying the voice they have heard isn’t the voice of his master. � Poole believes his master was killed over eight days ago when they heard him cry out. All week long whoever is in the study has been sending out orders to find a particular drug. � Although the handwriting appears to be that of Dr. Jekyll, Poole says it doesn’t matter because he has seen the person and it isn’t his master.
� Acting on Poole’s conviction that murder has been done, Utterson decides they must break down the door and investigate. � They both confess they suspect that Mr. Hyde is within the study. � When Utterson demands to see Jekyll at the door, the person within cries out for mercy. But Utterson and Poole break down the door with an ax. Within they find the body of Hyde, twitching in convulsions from the poison he has taken. They realize that they are too late and all they can do now is look for the body of Jekyll. � However, the search is fruitless. When they reexamine the study, they find an envelope addressed to Utterson with a note from Jekyll directing him to read the narrative left by Lanyon. Utterson departs for his study to read through all the documents.
Dr Lanyon’s Narrative � Lanyon describes a letter he received from Dr. Jekyll. � He is instructed to go to Jekyll’s study, to break the locks, and to secure a particular drawer and its contents. A man will come to his consulting room at midnight. � Lanyon carries out all the details of the letter and admits a small and muscular man who creates a sensation of “disgusted curiosity. ” � Immediately the man begins to prepare a compound from the contents of the drawer. � When it is ready, the man asks Lanyon if he wishes to let him go or to learn what will happen when he drinks the compound. Lanyon declares that he has gone too far not to see what will happen. � Thereupon the man drinks the potion and begins to change and assume the form of Henry Jekyll. � From that moment Lanyon feels his reason shaken and a deadly terror invades his thoughts. He knows he will not recover from this shock. He has seen the creature change from Hyde to Jekyll.
Henry Jekyll’s Full Statement of the Case � This last chapter is a full testament written by Jekyll concerning history and his character. � Jekyll describes himself as a proud man who wanted a reputation as a serious person. Early on he hid his natural high spirits and developed a double character. � His scientific studies focused on the mystical and transcendental as he searched out these aspects of man, especially in the moral dimension. He wanted to learn how these two sides could be disconnected. � At the same time he was studying drugs and discovered a potion that could transform his flesh and turn him into a creature that represented his baser nature.
� When he tries the drug on himself, he feels himself to be extremely wicked but at the time he was exhilarated by this sensation. � He begins to live this dual life, one as the respectable gentleman and the other as a person who gives into every impulse. � Jekyll continues to metamorphose back and forth between his two halves until one day the reversal occurs spontaneously. He realizes that the evil side of his nature is growing and is in danger of taking control of his life. � He tries to resist the temptation but once again he gives in. This time he kills Sir Carew. He is penitent and tries to maintain a good and sober life until he forgets his terror. � Now his evil side begins to take over even without the drug. He must use stronger and stronger doses of the potion to return to his original self. � When he runs out of the salt he uses in the compound, he finds that the fresh supply he orders does not have the power to transform him. � As he writes this testament he knows he has limited time before his evil nature takes over. He wonders if Hyde will die on the scaffold or commit suicide. � This is the end of the unhappy life of Henry Jekyll.
Assignment �Using Jekyll’s narrative, create a timeline of events in chronological order. 1. Jekyll drinks the potion and turns into Hyde
Structure Non –linear narrative • The presentation of events in a story in ad different order to that in which they occurred. Linear narrative • The presentation of events in a story in the order in which they actually occurred. Duality/more than one narrative voice
Sense of mystery Third person narrative: Utterson (8 Chapters) Sense of confusion and suspense
Ch 9 - Lanyon 1 st person Answers to mystery but maintains suspense Ch 10 - Jekyll 1 st person Confessional: Reveals everything Sympathy for Jekyll.
Henry Jekyll � Well –respected, successful scientist � Good friend to Utterson (holds a sincere and warm affection) � Former friend of Lanyon (critical of Lanyon – ‘hide-bound pendant) � Hyde is his alter ego. � Confesses all in the final chapter – closing the ‘case’ � First meeting in Ch 3 – mystery has been created around his relationship with Hyde. � Initially presented as sociable – dinner parties. � Physically healthy and strong, and handsome
�Admits to a certain vanity – ‘fond of the respect of the wise and good among my fellow men’ (Ch 10) �It clashes with his ‘impatient gaiety of disposition’ (Ch 10), leading him to conceal his pleasures. �Results in ‘a profound duplicity of life’ (ch 10) �‘plunged in shame’ (Ch 10) �Works hard ‘at the furtherance of knowledge or the relief of sorrow and suffering’ (Ch 10). �Stevenson uses Jekyll to represent the hypocrisy of Victorian society. – ‘man is not truly one, but is truly two’ (Ch 10) �Duality of man – the focus of his scientific work – while Hyde is completely evil, Jekyll remains a mixture of good and bad, so their personalities are not just good vs. evil.
�Selfishness in his actions – ‘profit by strange immunities’ (Ch 10) of his position. Actions Enjoying pleasures outside of his society – ‘safety was complete’ (Ch 10) Buys and furnishes a house for Hyde Servants are ordered to give Hyde full access to his home will Excuses himself from wrong – ‘ his conscience slumbered’ (10)– ‘Hyde alone, that was guilty’ (10) Opens bank account for Hyde – forging his signature – avoid detection �He thinks he has it all until her realises that Hyde seeks out not just the undignified but the monstrous, malign and villainous.
� Things deteriorate and Jekyll admits to ‘losing hold of my original and better self’ (Ch 10). - ‘in the beginning, the difficulty has been to throw off the body of Jekyll, it had of late, gradually but decidedly transferred to the other side’ (Ch 10). � Wakes up as Hyde – abandons this for 2 months. � Then is tempted – but this time Hyde is more murderous and depraved – killing Carew – ‘tasting delight in every blow’ � Jekyll tries to abandons Hyde again – too late as the change is involuntary. – Regent’s Park. � Jekyll’s remaining days are a battle between his two selves. � No drug – search is futile – first chemical used must have been impure. � Health deteriorates – last desperate act is suicide – dies not knowing if Hyde will reappear or escape.
Edward Hyde �Re – read the incident where Hyde tramples over the young girl in Chapter 1. Complete the table to analyse how Stevenson emphasizes Hyde’s evil
Quotation Language Device Effect ‘stumping’ Emotive verb This suggests that he walked forcefully in an aggressive manner ‘calmly’ ‘it was hellish’ ‘it was like some damned juggernaught’
Jekyll feels pity for him because of Hyde’s love of life Animalistic – ape-like; snakelike savage laugh Jekyll’s alter ego Elements of deformity and decay – not disgusted - welcomed Universal disgust/loathing/fear from those who meet him - unexplainable Smaller than Jekyll – but younger , lighter, happier Embodiment of the dark side of the scientist’s nature No hint of shame or guilt ‘Inherently malign and villainous’ - Young child & Carew Contradictory nature – ‘ a murderous mixture of timidity and boldness Grows in power and force Hyde formulates plan to ruin Lanyon Metaphor for less publicly acceptable and sometimes immoral and illegal behaviour in Vict. Society.
�What is the significance of the fact that it is Hyde’s dead body that Utterson and Poole find, not Jekyll’s?
Utterson �Create a page for Utterson to go on a social networking site. How will you reflect his personality and nature. �(Holiday Homework)
Utterson Undemonstrative, dispassionate “a lover of the sane and customary sides of life, to whom the fanciful was the immodest” Main narrator Lawyer : successful and well -respected Non-judgemental “embarrassed in discourse” Represents the Victorian gentleman – Rules and customs matter to him Good at keeping secrets Loyalty is important to him Knowledge and understanding of events is limited Rational and logical – no place for the unconventional and supernatural in his world Utterson’s dream represents his unconscious reality Concerned with protecting Jekyll’s reputation metaphor for V. Soc’s obsession with maintaining reputation
Think about the names given to the characters. Are they significant?
Mr Guest Mr U’s clerk Detects similarity in J & H’s handwriting Mr Richard Enfield Mr U’s relative Witnessed Hyde running over a little girl Minor characters Sir Danvers Carew An MP Killed by Hyde Poole Jekyll’s butler Bradshaw Jekyll’s footman
Language �Not static – changing and evolving �Formal – main characters are highly educated – reinforces their characters (contrast with Poole) �Language devices �Classwork: 20 Mins �Scan through Chapter 1 and identify examples of: �Simile �Alliteration �Metaphor �Personification �Onomatopoeia
Language and character Quotation Language device/word class Analysis ‘they [Hyde’s actions]soon began to turn towards the monstrous Adjective –’monstrous’ This suggests that Hyde’s behaviour is inhumane and without any sense of morality, reinforcing his animalistic, savage nature ‘a being inherently malign and villainous’ Adjectives – ‘malign and villainous’ This reinforces the idea that Hyde is evil and has not even the tiniest hint of goodness in him. He is portrayed as representing the very worst of man. ‘drinking pleasure with bestial avidity’ metaphor This directly relates Hyde to an animal and suggests that he greedily satisfies his evil desires, without any sense of shame or concern for anyone else. ‘relentless like a man of stone’ simile This conveys the idea that Hyde has no heart or soul and that he is an unstoppable force of evil without a conscience.
Classwork (20 minutes) �Stevenson emphasizes Hyde’s animal-like qualities through the use of the adjective ‘monstrous’ in the quotation, ‘they soon began to turn towards the monstrous’. This suggests that Hyde’s behaviour was inhumane and without any sense of morality, reinforcing his animalistic, savage nature. �Now write up 3 PQE paragraphs for the remaining quotations in the table, using the example as a model.
Language and Setting �Presents vivid descriptions of setting – Jekyll & Hyde’s homes �Reflects personalities of the people who inhabit these homes – building is an extension of the character. �Creates tension and suspense – crucial features of gothic fiction.
Exam Tip �Identify and explore word classes, which the writer uses for effect. Use words like ‘implies’, ‘suggests’, ‘reinforces’ and ‘conveys’ to show the examiner that you are moving from identification into analysis
Secrecy and Hypocrisy �Create the air of mystery and suspense � Swear each other to secrecy � Agree not to talk about a topic ever again �Enfield and Utterson �Jekyll and Utterson �Lanyon and Utterson � Other secrets revealed �Hyde’s other crimes �Jekyll’s youthful and unsavoury activities �Nothing revealed about the science behind Jekyll’s experiment.