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The state and elements State is an assemblage of politically organised people who permanently reside on a definite territory, have their own government whose laws are obeyed by them as a habit and they are completely free from any sort of control both internal and external.
According to Garner “The state as a concept of Political Science and public law is a community of persons, more or less, numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory independent or nearly so of external control and possessing an organised government to which greater body of obedience” inhabitants render habitual
n According to Aristotle -: “ State is a union of families and villages having for its end a perfect and self- sufficient life by which we mean a happy and honourable life”
Essential elements State has four essential elements n Population n Fixed territory n Government n sovereignty
Other characteristics of the state n Utility n All comprehensiveness n Continuity n Permanence n Equality n International recognition
State and society n Meaning of society-: Society is a comprehensive association of peaceful and willed relations of men who join together for the fulfillment of their common objectives. for the fulfillment of his various needs an individual forms various associations, institutions and communities and all these are the component of society
n n n n Distinction between state and society Society is older than state The scope of society is much wider than the scope of state State is sovereign , society is not Fixed territory is essential for the state not for the society Organization is essential for state not for society State is concerned with external actions whereas society is concerned with both internal and external actions State is part of society State has coercive power, society has persuasive power
State and Government n Meaning Of Government-: government is the agency of which express and implement the will of the state.
Distinction between state and government n Government is the element of the state n Fixed territory is essential for the state, not for the government n State is sovereign, government is not n Membership of state is compulsory not of the government n State without government is not possible but government is possible without state
n State is permanent whereas government is temporary n State is similar everywhere, governments are not n State is abstract, government is concrete n State is master, government is its servant n People can oppose the government but not the state
Conclusion On the basis of above we come to the conclusion that population, fixed territory, government and sovereignty are essential attributes of a state and in the event of the absence of any one of theses four attributes, the state can not exist. State and society are two different institution and both have wide differences. But in spite of it both have close relationship. There is also wide difference between state and government. State needs a tool to get its policies implemented and this organization and tool is government.
References n Aggarwal R. C. , Principles of Political Science, S. Chand Company, New Delhi, 1976. n Badyal, J. S, Political Theory, Raj Publishers, 2012, Jalander. n Garner James Wildford, Political Science and Government, The World Press Priviate LTD. Calcutta, 1951. n Gauba O. P, An Introduction to Political Theory, Macmillan Publisher, Delhi, 2009.
n n Heywood Andrew, Political Theory An Introduction, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2005. Misra K. K & Iyengar Kalpana. M, Modern Political Theory, S. Chand Company, New Delhi, 1988. Ray Amal, Political Theory Idess and Institutions, The World Press Priviate LTD. Calcutta, 1988 Johari J. C, Principles of Modern Political Science, Sterling Publishers, New Delhi, 1989.