THE SILENT KILLER HYPERTENSION HYPERTENSION BLOOD pressure that

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THE SILENT KILLER HYPERTENSION

THE SILENT KILLER HYPERTENSION

HYPERTENSION �BLOOD pressure that is above normal for sustained period.

HYPERTENSION �BLOOD pressure that is above normal for sustained period.

�Most common health problem In adults and the leading cause of cardiovascular disorder.

�Most common health problem In adults and the leading cause of cardiovascular disorder.

�Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure. Amedical condition in which

�Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure. Amedical condition in which constricted arterial blood vessels

�increase the resistance to blood flow, causing an increase in blood pressure against vessel

�increase the resistance to blood flow, causing an increase in blood pressure against vessel walls.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS �Most of the time, there are no symptoms. �Asymptomatic. �Idiopathic.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS �Most of the time, there are no symptoms. �Asymptomatic. �Idiopathic.

Symptoms that may occur include: �Confusion �Ear noise or buzzing �Fatigue �Headache

Symptoms that may occur include: �Confusion �Ear noise or buzzing �Fatigue �Headache

�Irregular heartbeat �Nosebleed �Vision changes �Shorthness of breath �Decrease energy

�Irregular heartbeat �Nosebleed �Vision changes �Shorthness of breath �Decrease energy

ETIOLOGY �Hypertension is classified into primary and secondary hypertension. Primary no definite cause.

ETIOLOGY �Hypertension is classified into primary and secondary hypertension. Primary no definite cause.

�increase the resistance to blood flow, causing an increase in blood pressure against vessel

�increase the resistance to blood flow, causing an increase in blood pressure against vessel walls.

�Secondary hypertension it usually the result of some other primary diseases leading to hypertension

�Secondary hypertension it usually the result of some other primary diseases leading to hypertension such as renal disease.

�Primary hypertension is attributed to atherosclerosis.

�Primary hypertension is attributed to atherosclerosis.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY �KIDNEY: release renin into the bloodstream. �LIVER: rennin helps convert angiotensin to angiotensin

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY �KIDNEY: release renin into the bloodstream. �LIVER: rennin helps convert angiotensin to angiotensin I

�LUNGS: angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II �KIDNEY: angiotensine II causes arterial constriction

�LUNGS: angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II �KIDNEY: angiotensine II causes arterial constriction and aldosterone secretion.

�ALDOSTERONE : cause sodium and water retention �Retained sodium and water increase blod volume.

�ALDOSTERONE : cause sodium and water retention �Retained sodium and water increase blod volume.

�Arterial constriction increases peripheral vascular resistance. �Increased blood volume and vascular resistance cause hypertension.

�Arterial constriction increases peripheral vascular resistance. �Increased blood volume and vascular resistance cause hypertension.

RISK FACTORS �Family history �Sedentary lifestyle �Obesity �Continual stress

RISK FACTORS �Family history �Sedentary lifestyle �Obesity �Continual stress

�Advancing age �Cigarette smoking �Excessive Alcohol consumption �High K intake, ca, and mg

�Advancing age �Cigarette smoking �Excessive Alcohol consumption �High K intake, ca, and mg

�High- fat and calorie diet �Stress �Use of contraceptive drugs

�High- fat and calorie diet �Stress �Use of contraceptive drugs

TREATMENT �Diuretics Ex. Hydrochlorothiazide (aldoril, aproside) Furosemide(lasix)

TREATMENT �Diuretics Ex. Hydrochlorothiazide (aldoril, aproside) Furosemide(lasix)

�Beta blockers Ex. Atenol(tenormin) Metoprolol (lopressor)

�Beta blockers Ex. Atenol(tenormin) Metoprolol (lopressor)

�ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin II receptor blockers Ex. Benazepril (lotensin) Quinapril (accupril)

�ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin II receptor blockers Ex. Benazepril (lotensin) Quinapril (accupril)

�Calcium channel blockers Ex. Captopril (capoten, capozide) Enalapril (vasotec, vaseretic)

�Calcium channel blockers Ex. Captopril (capoten, capozide) Enalapril (vasotec, vaseretic)

�Sympathetic Nerve Blocker

�Sympathetic Nerve Blocker

�Exercise regularly. �Reduce stress. �Stay at a healthy body weight.

�Exercise regularly. �Reduce stress. �Stay at a healthy body weight.

NURSING INTERVENTION �DASH type can decrease or lower BP @ 2 weeks. �Stay away

NURSING INTERVENTION �DASH type can decrease or lower BP @ 2 weeks. �Stay away for the fast food.

�If you smoke, quit! �Limit how much alcohol you drink -- 1 drink a

�If you smoke, quit! �Limit how much alcohol you drink -- 1 drink a day for women, 2 a day for men.

�Eat a heart-healthy diet, including K and fiber, and drink plenty of water. �Limit

�Eat a heart-healthy diet, including K and fiber, and drink plenty of water. �Limit the amount of Na you eat

�If you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar under control. �Lose weight if you

�If you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar under control. �Lose weight if you are overweight. Excess weight adds to strain on the heart. In some.

DIAGNOSE �The best way to diagnose hypertension is to check your BP frequently.

DIAGNOSE �The best way to diagnose hypertension is to check your BP frequently.

That’s all THANK YOU! GODBLESS US ALL

That’s all THANK YOU! GODBLESS US ALL