The Salamanca Statement Probably at present the most

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The Salamanca Statement • Probably, at present, the most important international policy document about

The Salamanca Statement • Probably, at present, the most important international policy document about inclusion • Actually 2 documents: – THE SALAMANCA STATEMENT – FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION ON SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION

The Salamanca Statement • UNESCO meeting in Salamancain Spain 7 -10 of June. -1994

The Salamanca Statement • UNESCO meeting in Salamancain Spain 7 -10 of June. -1994 • 300 participants • representing 92 governments • 25 international organisations • Gives concrete guidelines for action and responsibility

The Salamanca Statement Build on: • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) • Conclusions

The Salamanca Statement Build on: • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) • Conclusions from “The World Conference on Education for All” (1990) • United Nations “Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities” (1993)

Introducing on international policy basis: • Inclusion: – Inclusive Schools – Inclusive Schooling –

Introducing on international policy basis: • Inclusion: – Inclusive Schools – Inclusive Schooling – Integrated Education – Adaptive systems/adaptive education

Recognizing that: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Every child has a fundamental right to

Recognizing that: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Every child has a fundamental right to education Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs Education systems should be designed and educational programmes implemented to meet these diversities among children Students with special needs must have access to regular schools with adapted education Regular schools with an inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating and preventing discriminative attitudes and building up an inclusive society

National authorities/governments shall: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Improve the education system

National authorities/governments shall: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Improve the education system so it can include all students Adopt the principle of inclusive education in the legislation system to enrol all children Develop demonstration project Establish decentralized systems and user participation in planning, monitoring and evaluation Encourage the participation of parents and relevant user organisation Pay attention to early identification of special needs and Early Intervention Give relevant education, further education, training and support to teachers and other relevant professionals

and…. The governments shall also 1. Emphasise the international cooperation within programs of education

and…. The governments shall also 1. Emphasise the international cooperation within programs of education for all 2. Emphasise the importance of Special Needs Education as an integrated part of teacher education and training programs 3. Involve the NGO’s

Framework for Action – 4 parts • In addition to an “introduction”– there are

Framework for Action – 4 parts • In addition to an “introduction”– there are 3 parts: 1. New thinking in special needs education 2. Guidelines for the national level 3. Guidelines for regional and international level

Introduction – some premises 1. The importance of an open process 2. What is

Introduction – some premises 1. The importance of an open process 2. What is all children? 3. More attention shall be paid to possibilities than to limitations 4. The education shall be adapted to the student and not opposite

What is new perspective on special needs education? 1. Inclusion and participation assume that

What is new perspective on special needs education? 1. Inclusion and participation assume that students with disabilities attend ordinary kindergartens and schools on the local environment 2. The fundamental principle is that all children are toghether as much as possible 3. Inclusive education of high quality should focus on: – – – curriculum, organizational arrangements, teaching strategies resource use Partnership with the coomunities

What is new perspective on special needs education? 4. Inclusive education demands a focus

What is new perspective on special needs education? 4. Inclusive education demands a focus on peers. This implies that special units, special classes and schools should be used to a limited extent, and as exception form ordinary education 5. Special needs education varies enormously from country to country. If a country has to have special schools they should function as resource centres for regular schools 6. Countries with a limited number of special schools should be advised to establish mainstream-inclusive schools

What is new perspective on special needs education? 7. The governmental planning of education

What is new perspective on special needs education? 7. The governmental planning of education should concentrate on all persons, in all regions of the country and in all economic conditions 8. Special needs education policy represent a new approach. That’s why adults with disabilities should have special attention. 9. Girls and women are often discriminated. Women and men should have equal influence and opportunities 10. To make EFA effective it should be plans on the local, regional and national plan

The national level – some point of special interest 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The national level – some point of special interest 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Legislation should recognize the principles of EFA in primary, secondary and tertiary education Parallel and complementary legislative measures should be adopted in the fields of health, social welfare vocational training and employment Special attention should be paid to the needs of children with severe and multiple disabilities CBR-programs and services should be developed in parallel with inclusive education The organisation of effective education – particular for students with disabilities – is depending on high quality school management

The national level – some point of special interest 6. School management includes the

The national level – some point of special interest 6. School management includes the responsibility of effective cooperation between teachers and other experts 7. Each school should be responsible for each student’s development – not only the individual teacher 8. Further education of teachers in special needs education should be a part of a plan 9. A main challenge for schools are in-service training 10. The importance of a flexible curriculum, adapted to the children's’ needs

The national level – some point of special interest 11. The importance of coordination

The national level – some point of special interest 11. The importance of coordination of local, regional and national services and organisations 12. We know that the success of an incusive policy in schools are depending on early identification and intervention 13. Education of children with special educational needs is a shared task between parents and professionals 14. Parents should make the final decision concerning extra services and special needs education