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The Sacrament of Baptism Chapter 3
Pompa Diaboli (Ch. 3 -1) • In Baptism a series of six questions are asked – Either to the Godparents of the infant or the catechumen themselves. • The term “Pompa Diaboli” refers to the promise of what appears to be life in abundance in the secular world. – Also termed “anti-culture” – Manifested in permissiveness, corruption of joy, love of deceit and fraud, and perversion of the true meaning of life.
• Celebrant: Do you reject Satan? • • • – Response: I do. Celebrant: And all his works? – Response: I do. Celebrant: And all his empty promises? – Response: I do. Celebrant: Do you believe in God, the Father almighty, Creator of heaven and earth? – Response: I do. Celebrant: Do you believe in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord, Who was born of the Virgin Mary, was crucified, died, and was buried, rose from the dead, and is now seated at the right hand of the Father? – Response: I do. Celebrant: Do you believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting? – Response: I do.
Pompa Diaboli • Three of the six questions in Baptism require the response of “no”, witnessed by our actions, in rejecting Satan and the anticulture prevalent in the world. – Asks to reject and condemn the popular mainstream culture we live in today. • Witnessed in sexual promiscuity, cruelty, violence, • drug abuse, and atheism. All things that seem to give us a promise of apparent happiness but in fact leave us deflated and put a divide between us and Christ.
Pompa Diaboli • What can we expect to receive through the Sacrament of Baptism? – Pope Benedict XVI says, “The hope for a good life, the true life…” – The life God intended for us to live • Think back to “Made for More”. – What were we made for? v Happiness. Through Baptism we are freed from sin and reborn as sons of God; we become members of Christ, are incorporated into the Church and are sharers in her mission. ” (CCC, 1213)
Discussion • What are some sinful elements of popular culture that you have rejected? • By word or action, how do you affirm you baptismal promise of belief in God?
Understanding the Sacrament of Baptism (Ch. 3 -2) • “To baptize” comes from the Greek word baptizein, which means “to plunge” or “immerse” – The act of being plunged under water represents our death to a life of sin and just as Jesus died and was raised by the Father we also “rise up” as a new creature when we emerge from the waters of baptism. “Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life. ” (Rom 6: 3 -4)
Understanding the Sacrament of Baptism • Economy of Salvation – Definition? • God’s revelation and communication with man • throughout history for the sake of our salvation. Not always through words but also through signs, symbols and prefigured events. – Baptisms place within the history of salvation is remembered in the liturgy of the Easter Vigil, in which several events of the Old Testament prefigure Baptism.
Understanding the Sacrament of Baptism • Baptism Pre-figured in the OT – Water is a symbol of life • Water springs forth from the rock (Ex 17: 5 -7) – Water is a symbol of death • Jonah and the Whale (Jonah 1 & 2) • Water witnessed throughout God’s plan of salvation – Noah and the Ark – Moses parting the Red Sea – Just as Noah and Moses entered into new covenants with God through the effect of water, so do we in the Sacrament of Baptism.
Water as a symbol of life • And the Lord said to Moses: Go before the people, and take with you of the ancients of Israel: and take in your hand the rod wherewith you struck the river, and go. 6 Behold I will stand there before you, upon the rock Horeb, and you shall strike the rock, and water shall come out of it that the people may drink.
Water as a symbol of Death Now the Lord prepared a great fish to swallow up Jonas: and Jonas was in the belly of a fish for three days and three nights. 2 And Jonas prayed to the Lord, his God, out of the belly of the fish. 3 And he said: I cried out of my affliction to the Lord, and he heard me: I cried out of the belly of hell, and you have heard my voice. 4 And you have cast me forth into the deep, in the heart of the sea, and a flood have compassed me: all your billows, and your waves have passed over me. 5 And I said: I am cast away out of the sight of your eyes: but yet I shall see your holy temple again. 6 The waters compassed me about even to the soul: the deep has closed me round about, the sea has covered my head. 7 I went down to the lowest parts of the mountains: the bars of the earth have shut me up for ever: and you will bring up my life from corruption, O Lord, my God. 8 When my soul was in distress within me, I remembered the Lord: that my prayer may come to you, unto your holy temple. 9 They that in vain observe vanities, forsake their own mercy. 10 But I with the voice of praise will sacrifice to you: I will pay whatsoever I have vowed for my salvation to the Lord. And the Lord spoke to the fish: and it vomited out Jonas upon the dry land .
Understanding the Sacrament of Baptism • Christ’s Baptism – Done by St. John the Baptist • He preached repentance of • sin. Baptized people as a sign of their repentance before Christ marked it as necessary for salvation.
Christ’s Baptism • Christ was baptized by St. John even though he was without sin. – This was because Christ would later commission the Apostles to evangelize to other nations and baptize them in his name. – Christ was also setting an example of the importance of Baptism. • Even though he did not need the effects of Baptism, he was baptized in order to express the value of submitting to God and letting go of all that we try to control and rather let God work in our lives.
Christian Initiation in the Church • Catechumenate – A preparation process for Baptism and the other Sacraments of Christian initiation. – Catholic Inquiry – Period of Catechumen
Initiation for Baptism and Other Sacraments of Initiation (Early Church) 1) Precatechumenate • • • The initial conversion. This person has heard the Gospel and wants to learn more about the Christian faith. It was a period of Inquiry. Had sponsors that knew them well and that took time to guide them through their Gospel instruction as well as evaluated their intention to become Catholic. The Church celebrated a rite that admitted them into the Order of Catechumens.
Initiation for Baptism and Other Sacraments of Initiation (Early Church) 2) Catechumenate • • • A period of study for 2 -3 years. During this time they received instruction on the Gospel from Catechists (teachers of the faith). Celebrated Mass. However, did not receive the Eucharist.
Initiation for Baptism and Other Sacraments of Initiation (Early Church) 3) Purification, Enlightenment, or Illumination • • • Coincided with Lent. Candidates took part in Rite of Enrollment. They recorded their names in the Book of Elect, further stating their intention of receiving Christ. Attended prayer services and scrutinies that ask God to help them examine their lives for sin. Prepare for Easter. Celebrated Baptism, Confirmation, and Eucharist at Easter Vigil Mass and become full members of the Church.
Initiation for Baptism and Other Sacraments of Initiation (Early Church) 4) Mystagogia (Mysteries) • Continued through the • entire Easter season. The new members immersed themselves in the Sacraments.
Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults (RCIA) • A practice restored by Vatican II. – 1962 -1965 • Difference between Eastern and Western Rites. – Eastern confers all three rites at infancy. • Infants receive Eucharist through species of consecrated wine. • Infants become full members of the Church at this time. – Western baptizes infants but they do not become full members until they have undergone years of preparation to receive the Sacraments of Eucharist and Confirmation.
Quick Review • Baptism takes it’s name from a Greek word which means to plunge • The OT prefigures Baptism – The establishment of a covenantal relationship • Jesus was baptized as a way to teach the importance of receiving baptism • Our own baptism is connected with the Paschal Mystery – Death & Resurrection • Baptism always has and is the way to membership in the Church • The catechumenate is the period of study which is comprised of several stages
Celebrating the Sacrament of Baptism (Ch. 3 -3) • In the 4 th and 5 th centuries knowledge of Original Sin increased. – Original Sin refers to the nature of sin that all humans have inherited through birth from the first sin of Adam. • Born with a tendency to sin and reject God’s will for our • own. It is why we aren’t born with all the answers to our faith and understanding of God. – Baptism removes the stain of Original Sin • This pushed many parents to have their children baptized since many did not make it to adulthood because of disease and sickness.
The Rite of Baptism of Children (RBC) • The rite in which most Catholics are initiated into the Church. – Is a perfect example of how the salvation received from Baptism is a pure gift of Christ’s grace because nothing is required to receive it. • Some Protestant sects of Christianity believe that children should only be baptized once they reach the age of reason because they are unable as to make commitments as children
The Necessity of Baptism • Because Jesus said so. – “Jesus answered, Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. ” (John 3: 5). – “Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned. ” (Mark 16: 16) • CCC 1257 – The Lord himself affirms that Baptism is necessary for salvation. He also commands his disciples to proclaim the Gospel to all nations and to baptize them. Baptism is necessary for salvation for those to whom the Gospel has been proclaimed and who have had the possibility of asking for this sacrament. The Church does not know of any means other than Baptism that assures entry into eternal beatitude; this is why she takes care not to neglect the mission she has received from the Lord to see that all who can be baptized are "reborn of water and the Spirit. " God has bound salvation to the sacrament of Baptism, but he himself is not bound by his sacraments.
Salvation Without Water? • Three traditional examples of how God is not bound by the Sacrament. – 1) Baptism of Blood • Those martyred for Christ’s sake before they were able to be baptized. – 2) Baptism of Desire • Those who have received the Gospel and • desired to be baptized but died before they were. Those who never received news of the Gospel but lived a life according to God’s will as best they knew how. – 3) Infant death prior to Baptism • The Church entrusts them to God’s mercy. • God desires that all people be saved.
Baptism of Desire • The Church teaches that Baptism is necessary for salvation. • So… • What would the Church tell grieving parents of a stillborn child or a child who was miscarried since these children have never received baptism? • The Church emphasizes God’s great mercy in these tragic • • situations God cherishes the dignity of every human conceived – Our responsibility as Catholics to protect the lives of the unborn Also, the desire of the parents for their child to be baptized is a type of “Baptism of desire”
Rites and Symbols of Baptsim • The meaning and the grace of the • Sacrament of Baptism are revealed in the essential rite, actions, and symbols of the sacrament Essential Rite of Baptism: – Immersion or pouring of water 3 times – “I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the H. S • Communal celebration (Easter Vigil/Sunday Mass) – “Baptism is the sacrament of faith. But faith needs the community of believers. It is only within the faith of the Church that each of the faithful can believe. ” (CCC 1253)
Phillip and the Ethiopian Eunuch • Acts 8: 27 -38 • Phillip was an Apostle – Preached to Gentiles in Samaria and Africa – Came across Eunuch reading book of Isaiah – Eunuch asked to be baptized • In Egypt, it was the practice of the Pharaohs to have large harems of women – These women were protected by eunuchs • Male officials (slaves) who were castrated so that they would not have sex with Pharaoh’s women.
Phillip and the Ethiopian Eunuch • Eunuch’s were considered outcast’s by Jewish culture because of their physical condition. • They could not be circumcised and could not be admitted to Judaism • Phillip’s conversion of the Eunuch shows that God invites all people into His Church • The Eunuch did not have to become a Jew to become a Christian • An example of “Baptism of desire” • Was reading scripture and attempting to understand who the Messiah was.
BTW • Either bishops, priests, or deacons are the • • ordinary ministers for the Sacrament of Baptism However… In emergency situations anyone, Catholic or non-Christian, can baptize another so long as the Trinitarian formula and immersion or pouring of water is used – Just as the Church does – Sacrament is still efficacious
Quick Review • Anyone not baptized is eligible for Baptism – Baptism is necessary for salvation • God is not bound by this sacrament – Baptism of Blood, Desire, infant death • Baptism is properly celebrated communally • The essential rite: – Immersion or pouring of water 3 times – “I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the H. S. • Today’s catechumenate: – Rite of Acceptance – Rite of Election
The Grace of Baptism (Ch. 3 -4) • Two primary graces or effects of the Sacrament are indicated by the immersion in water. – 1) Death to sin. – 2) New birth in the Holy Spirit. • Overcome Original Sin and become receptive to the teachings of the Church.
The Forgiveness of Sins (Death to Sin) • Both Original Sin and personal sins are • • forgiven. Sin is understood as the “abuse of the freedom that God gives” us. (CCC, 387) Adam received original holiness and justice for him and for all human nature.
Original Holiness and Justice • The state of man and woman before sin. – Essentially, harmony with God and creation. – Total spiritual control, no suffering or grief. • By the sin of Adam, all men were affected and took on a fallen state or rather, received a wounded human nature. – This wounded nature causes us to choose our own will over God’s will and gives us the false sense that we know what is best for us despite our constant return to sin. • Protoevangelium “First Gospel” (Gen 3: 15) – Gospel = Good News
Protoevangelium • Genesis 3: 15 • • God said to the serpent: “I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; He will strike at your head, while you strike at his heel. ” • How can this one line from Scripture be called a “Gospel”, or rather • • a story of Good News? It is an announcement of the “New Adam” who will make amends for the sin of Adam through obedience to God… even up to Death on a cross. God, immediately after banishing Adam and Eve from the garden, makes a promise that He will not abandon us.
Christ’s Sacrifice on the Cross is the Source of Our Salvation • Through Baptism we die with Christ and are resurrected. • Original as well as personal sins are absolved.
Becoming a “New Creature” • Baptism changes our identity – We become members of Christ. – We can now share in a divine life (relationship) • Through Baptism we receive the grace of justification – More than just the forgiveness of sin; being transformed in a way that is more Christ-like. • 1) Enables us to believe in God • 2) Opens our hearts to live and act under the Holy Spirit • 3) Allows us to love what is good and to act in a way that promotes goodness.
Incorporated Into the Church • Baptism makes us members of the Church. – We no longer belong to ourselves but to Christ. • The rights we receive as members of the Catholic Church – 1) The right to receive the other Sacraments • Catholics must be baptized before receiving any other sacraments. – 2) The right to be nourished with the Word of God. • To hear it and have it taught to us according to the Church’s teaching. – 3) The right to take part in and be sustained by additional spiritual helps of the Church. • This includes parish activities, religious education, retreats, etc. (To be spiritually sustained by the Church)
Rights and Responsibilities • Through Baptism we are given rights • Additionally, we take on responsibilities • What are rights that we have as American • citizens? As a result of these rights what duties do we have?
Incorporated Into the Church • Our duties as members of the Church – 1) Obey and submit to Church leaders regarding faith and morals. • The H. S. guides the Pope • and his bishops This ensures adherence to the original teaching of the Apostles
2) Give Witness by Living in Holiness and Practicing Charity • How do we do such things… • What does HOLINESS mean? – Sanctification, God calls us to be His own. We respond by keeping His commandments – Closeness to God, varying degrees • What does CHARITY mean? – First love of God, secondly love of man because of God’s love for men (Dignity)
3) Participate in missionary activity of the Church • Serving the poor
4) Obey the Precepts of the Church • 1) Keep Sunday Holy by participating in Mass and • • • refraining from servile work 2) Go to confession at least once per year (remove personal sins that occur after baptism) 3) Receive Communion at least once a year at Easter 4) Keep days of obligation holy by celebrating Mass and refraining by servile work – Christmas, Mary, Mother of God (Jan. 1), Assumption of Mary (Aug. 15), All Saints (Nov. 1), Immaculate Conception (Dec. 8) Keep days of fast and abstinence Contribute to the support of one’s local Church
Unity With Other Christians • Baptism strengthens the opportunity for unity among all Christians – Includes those baptized outside of the Church • Have acquired an imperfect form of communion • The Catholic Church recognizes most Christian Baptisms as valid. – Must be done in the name of the Father, and of … – No need to be re-baptized; it is a one-time sacrament • “We believe in the one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. ”
The Seal of Eternal Life • Baptism seals Christians with an indelible mark – Not even sin can erase this mark. – However, sin can still prevent a baptized person from gaining the rewards of Salvation. • Venial sin: stumbling block on our path to achieving • spiritual perfection Mortal sin: aversion from this path; violate natural law • The mark of Baptism readies Christians for religious worship. – Baptism is a spiritual primer. – We have been prepared by it, now we must live it in a holy life committed to service of others and faith in God.
• • • The Reality of Our Salvation and Baptism is necessary for salvation HOWEVER… Baptism by itself will not save a Christian who thinks that they do not need to do anything anymore. – This would be like an athlete, band member, or student showing up for the first practice or day of classes and believing that they have everything under control – Think of Baptism as the necessary first step
Quick Review • The effects of Baptism are indicated by our immersion in water • Death to sin, new life • Other effects include: – Incorporation into the Church – Unity with other Christians – The seal of eternal life
Objectives • To study the three theological virtues that help us to live out our baptisms. – Remember that we have agreed to certain duties. • Many people today, especially young people, • • unfortunately live without hope. Understand the four cardinal virtues and how other virtues are drawn from them. Become familiar with sacramentals and how they relate to Baptism
Loving God More Deeply (Ch. 3 -5) • As mentioned earlier, an effect of Baptism we receive is the sanctifying grace of justification. – This grace allows us to more deeply believe in God, hold hope in Him, and most importantly love Him. • HOW DO WE EXPRESS OUR LOVE AND GRATITUDE FOR HIM? – Through the Theological Virtues v Understanding these virtues are helpful in living a Christian life. v St. Gregory of Nyssa, “The goal of a virtuous life is to become like God. ” v Allows us to avoid making poor choices.
Loving God More Deeply • Theological Virtues – Are not earned or achieved by anything that we do. – God infuses them into our souls to make us capable of choosing goodness over sin. – Serve as the foundation of Moral or Human Virtues, which are acquired through our education and deliberate acts.
What are the Theological Virtues?
FAITH • Theological virtue by which we believe in God and all that the Church teaches. • Builds our personal relationship with Christ and helps us to recognize him as the source of our salvation.
FAITH • Professing one’s faith is not enough. – “For just as the body without the spirit is dead, so also faith without works is dead. ” (James 2: 26) – Living out the faith we profess often becomes difficult, especially during our young-adult years. • Participating in weekly Mass • Exposure to as well as curiosity in immoral behavior – Stealing, cheating, lying, promiscuity, drugs, etc. – Recognize your mission through deliberate prayer and action • We all have the capacity to be faithful and to love God and all that is good. • Reflect the love of God in yourself; be a great witness. – Can do so just by the way you conduct yourself and interact with others. Look at the lives of the saints.
HOPE • Theological Virtue by which we desire happiness and the Kingdom of God. – In “Made for More”, the author spoke of happiness and that our behavior is directed by our desire to attain it. • Whatever we deem as the source of our happiness we will hope in e. g. sports, relationships, success, etc. – All of these will not measure up to the eternal happiness we will receive when we enter heaven. – Let your hope lie in your salvation.
Hope • Founded in the Paschal Mystery – The Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ. • Unfortunately, many people today, including young adults, live without hope. – We must find hope in, as well as lead those without hope to Christ. • The salvation that Christ has earned for us should give us hope for the experience of eternal happiness that we will one day encounter. • “Come to Me, all who are weary and heavy-laden, and I will give you rest. Take My yoke upon you and learn from Me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For My yoke is easy and My burden is light. ” (Matthew 11: 28 -30)
Yoke A yoke is a wooden beam, normally used between a pair of oxen or other animals to enable them to pull together on a load when working in pairs; some yokes are fitted to individual animals. • Christ asks us to try on his yoke • “Burden” • This first requires us to remove our own yoke so that we may be free to take on Christ’s (abandon our will for God’s) • Natural for us to hold on to our own yoke in fear that another’s yoke may be more burdensome • However, Christ assures us that the load of his yoke is light.
What do you find most difficult about “living the faith”? Or rather what is challenging about “living out your Baptismal promises”? Do these challenges cause you to feel hopeless? Are there other difficulties that cause you to lose hope?
CHARITY • The New Commandment – “Love on another as I love you. ” (John 15: 12) – Our expression of love for Christ manifested in our service to others because we recognize that they are just as special to Christ as we are and that Christ is present in them just as he is in us.
Sacramentals • The Church offers several reminders of • our Baptism both in its liturgies and in its practices A sacred sign (objects, places, and actions) that resemble the sacraments – Man-made not Christ-made – Holy water, sign of the cross – Name others…
Quick Review • The gift of the sanctifying grace of justification infuses the baptized with theological virtues. • In the liturgy and through prayerful reflection, we are reminded of the graces of the Sacrament of Baptism. • Forgiveness of sin • Ability to follow and imitate Jesus