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The Roadmap to REDD Implementation in Tanzania: Potential Challenges and Opportunities Pius Z. Yanda, Emma T. Liwenga & Claude G. Mung’o Institute of Resource Assessment, University of Dar es Salaam P. O. Box 35097 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
WHAT IS REDD ? • Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation • REDD is based on the idea of rewarding individuals, communities, projects and countries that reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions from forests. • REDD is seen as a significant, cheap, quick and win-win way to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 2
• REDD is based on the idea of reward: –individuals, –communities, –projects and –countries –that reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions from forests.
Why REDD? –Has the potential to deliver large cuts in emissions at a low cost within a short time frame –Enhances biodiversity conservation –Enhances ecosystem management –Contributes to reducing poverty Hence: Enhance sustainable
Can REDD payment alone be an incentive ? • Not sure • Consider – Opportunity costs – Ecosystem management costs – Monitoring and evaluation
How can sustainable development be achieved through REDD initiative? • Enhancement of ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation – Effective conservation of ecosystems – Provision of alternative livelihoods e. g. beekeeping – Provision of alternative sources of fuel wood through establishment of woodlots
How can it be achieved? • Contribution to reducing poverty – Supporting rural development activities with funding from REDD Fund – Promotion of environmentally friendly livelihood activities like beekeeping – Through incomes from carbon market
Which forests would be appropriate for REDD? • Catchment forests • Forests high in biodiversity resources • Forests in fragile landscapes
Issues for Consideration during REDD Implementation
Who Qualifies for Rewards • Who owns forests at different levels? • Who deserves payments at the national, sub-national, community and household levels? • How do we deal with legal and illegal deforestation? E. g. deforestation for livelihoods? • How do we graduate rewarding packages at the individual levels on the basis of compliance?
Who Qualifies for Rewards • Are forests in the public land also public? • Do villagers know which forests belong to their village? • Do individual households in the villages own forests ? • How do we reverse the REDD philosophy so as to reward stewardship at the community level ?
What is the Appropriate Timing for the Reward • When will an individual begin to be paid? • If it is as per the present REDD concept, what happens to individuals during the realization phase? • Should we use holistic approach with combined adaptation and mitigation by emphasizing on ecosystem services? • In this regard then should we see benefits to be cumulative and gradual, payment for REDD being one of the medium and long-term ecosystem benefits?
Rewarding Approach • What will be the rewarding arrangement? • Should the out-grower approach be applied? • What will be the basis for payment under such arrangement? • Alternatively, are the rewarding package under PFM adequate for REDD? • Can we improvise PFM packages to suit REDD rewarding scheme?
Rewarding Approach • Should we consider rewarding arrangements through improvement of landscape management with the aim of promoting land productivity? • But then how does one discriminate those individuals that have not complied? • How does one reward individuals on the basis of compliance?
Social Issues • How do we control land grabbing and marginalization of the poor anticipating commercialization of trees through REDD? • How do we discourage shifting cultivation and enhance productivity per unit area? • How do we reduce dependence on fuel wood and charcoal as major sources of energy? • What are the implications to gender relations of transforming trees as a cash crop to the household livelihoods
How Are We Addressing these Issues
Stakeholders Consultations • Zonal Stakeholders consultation are underway in eight zones • Two have been conducted • Issues covered during consultations are: – – – Lessons learned from PFM and WMA Incentive schemes Benefit sharing mechanisms Participatory monitoring Drivers of deforestation Governance and tenure
Next Steps • National Stakeholders workshop – Results from zonal stakeholders consultations – In-depth studies reports • Expert groups meetings to review thematic areas • Drafting of National REDD Strategy • Sharing draft with stakeholders for further improvement 19
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