- Slides: 20
The Rise and Decline of the (Islamic) Gunpowder Empires AP World History 1450 -1750
Overview Rise of Ottomans, Safavid, and Mughal Empires n Conditions of Europe n Big Question: What accounts for the rise of the Gunpowder Empires and why aren’t they able to keep pace with Europe? n
Ottoman Rise Void left by Mongols taken up by Ottomans (among others) n Cavalry, Janissaries dominate n Conquer Constantinople, make it their capital n Considered the “terror of Europe” n
Ottoman Military Might Adopted firearms readily – easily defeated Muslim rivals, Hungary n Initially they had superior technology n 15 th Century - Build navy to ward off Europeans, gain control of Mediterranean (Significance? ) n
400 Years of Decline Military victories bring about decline, how? n Had to constantly guard gains n Multiethnic lead to ethnic rivalries n Religious diversity at times leads to religious rivalries n
400 Years of Decline Conservative Islam focused on tradition, spirituality n Turks did not have the resources, forethought to modernize army n Trade imbalance n Middle class heavily taxed (why relevant? ) n Numerous ineffective leaders n
Land-Based Empires Focus on self-defense n Agricultural base, not industrialization n Centralized power n Large land masses n Controlled by large administrative and economic systems n Why have you never heard of Gunpowder Empires? n
Safavid (1501 – 1722) n n n The Safavid Dynasty started with Shah Ismail (1501). He was a descendant of Safi al -Din who had been the leader of a Turkish ethnic groups in Azerbaijan near the Caspian Sea. Under Ismail, the Safavid took control of much of Iran and Iraq
Safavid n n Ismail called himself “shah, ” or king, of the new Persian state. Ismail was a Shiite Muslim. He sent preachers to different areas to convert members of the Ottoman Empire. This led to the massacre of Sunni Muslims when he took Baghdad. Lost the Battle of Chaldiran (1514); prevents Shi’ism from spreading further west
Safavid n n Shah Abbas, who ruled from 1588 to 1629, brought the Safavids to their highest point of glory. He usurped the throne from his father and imprisoned him. He later killed the man who helped him get the throne. He attacked the Ottoman Turks, with European help – they saw the Safavids as allies – to regain lost lands from the Ottomans. The Safavids could not keep territorial gains, but a treaty was signed in 1612 returning Azerbaijan to the Safavids.
Safavid n n The Safavid Empire went from Azerbaijan on the Caspian Sea east to India; along the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea north to the southern border of Russia. When Shah Abbas died, religious orthodoxy, a pressure to conform to traditional religious beliefs, increased. Women were to give up freedom for a life of seclusion and the wearing of the veil.
Safavid n n n Isfahan was the Safavid capital. While under Shah Hussein, it was taken by Afghan peoples. Persia sank into a period of anarchy – lawlessness and disorder. The role of the shah was that of a king. The social structure was Shah, bureaucracy and landed classes, then the common people. The official religion was Shia Islam because the Shiites supported the shahs at first.
Safavid n n n Isfahan was the jewel of the Safavid Empire, and it is still that for modern-day Iran. Silk weaving flourished, but carpet weaving flourished more – Persian rugs are still prized today. Riza-i-Abbasi is the most famous artist of this time. He made beautiful works about simple subjects such as oxen plowing, hunters, and lovers. They used soft colors and flowing movement in painting.
Rise of Mughal India n n n Rise of power swift, easily conquered and controlled Northern India. Babur conquered Sultanate of Delhi (1526) Akbar (most important) solidified power, made social changes n n n Created a new religion “Divine Faith” with elements of Hinduism and Islam - unsuccessful Eliminated jizya tax on Hindus Allowed Hindus to build temples again Promoted Hindus in the gov’t Outlawed Sati, discouraged child marriage
Mughal Power n n n Massive armies, cavalry, artillery, no navy Firearms purchased from Europeans, limited local production Troops poorly trained – conscripted from poor Mughal’s had no Navy (merchants privately owned ships to trade: Silk, Cotton, indigo) Government was decentralized (tradition of regional control)
Mughal Decline n n Public works (including the Taj Mahal) drain budgets Later rulers more interested in Pleasure than Governance
Mughal Decline n n Wars to conquer Southern India depleted reserves, distracted emperor from internal problems (uprisings and revolts), and incursions from Persian and Afghan warriors bands Aurangzeb expanded at the expense of local problems.
Mughal Decline n n Repressive tax system, with few benefits seen by poor Extensive bureaucracy allowed large scale corruption Later emperors refused to integrate Hindus into the gov’t (80% of population) Military technology unable to match European development – modernization plan – Why?
What were the similarities & differences between the three Muslim empires? SIMILARITIES - origins in Turkic nomadic raiders of Central Asia based on military conquest - oriented to support armies & military classes using firearms - effective use of firearms and siege warfare - ruled by a disputed succession of absolute monarchs -court rituals patterned after those of earlier Islamic dynasties -Taxed conquered peoples heavily OTTOMAN -Anatolia Peninsula, Europe & Nth Africa -religious fervor & zeal for Islamic conversion -mostly Muslim, large Christian minority -Sunni Muslim SAFAVID -Persia (Iran) -religious fervor & zeal for Islamic conversion -mostly Muslim -Shi’ia Muslim MUGHAL -Northern India -rule pre-dominantly non-Muslim population DIFFERENCES -Sunni (Ottoman and Mughal) v. Shi’a (Safavid) enmity meant warring over territory & persecuting adherents of rival brand of Islam - leads to varying religious practices, legal codes & social organization