- Slides: 29
The Revolution Within the Revolution APUSH Unit 2
The United States in 1787
The Dream of Equality The Revolution unleashed public debates and political and social struggles that enlarged the scope of freedom and challenged inherited structures of power within America Rejected was the principle of hereditary aristocracy Inequality had been fundamental to the colonial social order The Declaration of Independence’s assertion that “all men are created equal” radically altered society
1. Govt. gets its authority from the citizens. Enl of w vie blic l a sic l repu s a Cl ode am igh Th tenm e ink ing nt The “Virtuous Republic” Id e [Ci al c nci itiz nna en tus ] ill” ] h n a throp o in ty “Ci n W h [Jo 2. A selfless, educated citizenry. 3. Elections should be frequent. 4. Govt. should guarantee individual rights & freedoms. 5. Govt. ’s power should be limited [checks & balances]. 6. The need for a written Constitution. 7. “E Pluribus Unum. ” [“Out of many, one”] 8. An important role for women raise good, virtuous citizens. [“Republican Womanhood”].
Expanding the Political Nation The democratization of freedom was dramatic for free men Artisans, small farmers, laborers, and the militia all emerged as a self-conscious element in politics The leaders of the Revolution had not intended this disruption of social order Example: Pennsylvania The prewar elite of Pennsylvania opposed independence Pennsylvania’s radicals attacked property qualifications for voting
Occupational Composition of Several State Assemblies in the 1780 s
The New Constitutions All states wrote a new constitution and agreed that their governments must be republics States disagreed as to how the government should be structured Pennsylvania’s onehouse legislature John Adams’s “balanced governments” of twohouse legislatures
State Constitutions Republicanism. Most had strong governors with veto power. Most had bicameral legislatures. Property required for voting. Some had universal white male suffrage. Most had bills of rights. Many had a continuation of stateestablished religions while others disestablished religion.
The Right to Vote The property qualification for suffrage was hotly debated The least democratization occurred in the southern states There political traditions enabled the landed gentry to retain their control of political affairs By the 1780 s with the exceptions of Virginia, Maryland, and New York, a large majority of the adult white male population could meet voting requirements Freedom and an individual’s right to vote had become interchangeable
Separating Church and State The drive to separate church and state brought together Deists with members of evangelical sects Seven state constitutions declared a commitment to “the free exercise of religion” Other states still had limitations on religious freedom Thomas Jefferson’s “Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom” separated church and state James Madison insisted that one reason for the complete separation of church and state was to reinforce the principle that the new nation offered “asylum to the persecuted and oppressed of every nation and religion”
Toward Free Labor The lack of freedom in apprenticeship and servitude increasingly came to be seen as incompatible with republican citizenship Ebenezer Fox By 1800, indentured servitude had all but disappeared from the United States The distinction between freedom and slavery sharpened Twelve year old Ebenezer Fox came from a poor family in Roxbury, Massachusetts. His parents had “bound him out” to work on a neighbor’s farm. He decided the Revolutionary excitement gave him a perfect excuse to run away and “set up a government of my own. ” He then joined the navy with a friend.
The Soul of a Republic Equality was the very soul of a republic To most free Americans “equality” meant equal opportunity, rather than equality of condition Thomas Jefferson and others, equated land economic resources with freedom
The Debate over Free Trade The Politics of Inflation The war produced inflation and some Americans took matters into their own hands Congress urged states to adopt measures to fix wages and prices Adam Smith’s argument that the “invisible hand” of the free market directed economic life more effectively and fairly than governmental intervention offered intellectual justification for those who believed that the economy should be left to regulate itself
Colonial Loyalists The War for Independence was in some respects a civil war among Americans Loyalists remained loyal to the crown Estimated 20 to 25 percent of Americans were Loyalists Some Loyalists ethnic minorities feared that local majorities would infringe on their freedom to enjoy cultural autonomy When the war ended, as many as 100, 000 Loyalists were banished from the United States or emigrated voluntarily Ben Franklin’s Loyalist son, William
The Indians’ Revolution Indians were divided in allegiance during the War for Independence American independence meant the loss of freedom for many Indian tribes who were allied with the British Iroquois However, both the British and Americans were guilty of savagery toward the Indians during the war
Indian Land Cessions: 1768 -1799
Slavery and Freedom During the debates over British rule, “slavery” was invoked as a political category Britain was a “kingdom of slaves” while America was a “country of free men” James Otis wrote of universal freedom, even for blacks The irony that America cried for liberty while enslaving Africans was not lost
Slavery and Freedom The Cause of General Liberty By defining freedom as a universal entitlement, the Revolution inevitably raised question about the status of slavery in the new nation Samuel Sewall’s The Selling of Joseph (1700) Obstacles to Abolition Some patriots argued that slavery for blacks made freedom possible for whites For government to seize property, including slaves, would be an infringement on liberty “It is most certain that all Men, as they are the Sons of Adam, are, and have equal Right unto Liberty, and all other outward Comforts of Life. ”
The First Emancipation Abolition after the Revolution For a brief moment, the revolutionary upheaval appeared to threaten the continued existence of slavery Between 1777 and 1804 every state north of Maryland took steps toward emancipation Abolition in the North was a slow process and typically applied only to future children of current slave women Free Black Communities After the war, free black communities came into existence Despite the rhetoric of freedom, the war did not end slavery for blacks
Abigail Adams was more than just a First Lady. She was politically minded and often stood up for those who lacked power such as slaves, women, and the colonies. Like other women of her era, she had no formal education, but was curious and worked hard to teach herself. She read any books that were available and became knowledgeable about a variety of subject matters most women never considered.
John and Abigail Adams wrote letters to each other frequently. In these letters one can tell that they were close friends and often Adams advised her husband on matters of politics. In one of her most famous letters Abigail wrote: “I long to hear that you have declared an independency—and by the way in the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire you would remember the ladies, and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the husbands. Remember all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice or representation. ”
The Daughters of Liberty Revolutionary War-era Women Within American households, women participated in the political discussions unleashed by independence Abigail Addams Many women fought during the war in various capacities including during combat Deborah Molly Sampson Pitcher
Daughters of Liberty The winning of independence did not alter the law of family inherited from Britain In both law and social reality, women did not enter into political participation Many women who entered public debate felt the need to apologize for their forthrightness
Republican Motherhood The next step for the Daughters of Liberty? Republican Motherhood Women played a key role in the new republic by training future citizens The idea of republican motherhood reinforced the trend toward the idea of “companionate” marriage
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