- Slides: 68
The Renaissance 1485 -1660
Introduction the people of Europe living in the 1400 s, 1500 s, and 1600 s didn’t know that they were living in the Renaissance. Historical periods are historians’ inventions, useful labels for complex phenomena. The changes in people’s values, beliefs, and behavior that marked the emerging Renaissance occurred gradually. Much that could be called medieval lingered on long after the period known as the Middle Ages was past.
Rediscovering Ancient Greece and Rome The term renaissance is a French word meaning “rebirth. ” It refers particularly to renewed interest in classical learning—the writings of ancient Greece and Rome. During the Middle Ages, few ordinary people could read. Those who could read were encouraged to study texts explaining Church doctrine. In the Renaissance, however, people discovered the marvels of old Greek and Latin classics—books that had been forgotten for hundreds of years.
The Spirit of Rebirth Some people became more curious about themselves and their world than people in general had been in the Middle Ages. Gradually there was a renewal of the human spirit—a renewal of curiosity and creativity. New energy seemed to be available for creating beautiful things and thinking new, even daring, thoughts.
It All Began in Italy: A Flourish of Genius The Renaissance began in Italy in the fourteenth century and lasted into the sixteenth. Extraordinary people flourished in this period— artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, explorers such as Christopher Columbus, and scientists such as Galileo. Almost everyone in Europe and Britain at this time was Roman Catholic, so the Church was very rich and powerful. Many of the popes were generous supporters of artists, architects, and scholars.
The Sistine Chapel
Leonardo Da Vinci Above: Vitruvian Man Left: Mona Liza
It All Began in Italy: A Flourish of Genius Pope Julius II, for example, commissioned the artist Michelangelo to paint gigantic scenes from the Bible on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, a small church in the pope’s “city, ” called the Vatican. Michelangelo’s bright, heroic figures, which are still admired by thousands of visitors to Rome each year, show individual human beings who are noble and capable of perfection. This optimistic view of humanity was also expressed by many other Renaissance painters and writers.
Humanism: Questions About the Good Life Refreshed by the classics, the new writers and artists were part of an intellectual movement known as humanism. The humanists went to the old Latin and Greek classics to discover new answers to such questions as “What is a human being? ” “What is a good life? ” and “How do I lead a good life? ” Of course, Christianity provided complete answers to these questions, answers that the Renaissance humanists accepted as true. They sought to harmonize the Bible and the classics. Their aim was to use the classics to strengthen, not discredit, Christianity.
Humanism: Questions About the Good Life The humanists’ first task was to recover accurate copies of these ancient writings. Their searches through Italian monasteries turned up writers and works whose very existence has been forgotten. Their next task was to share their findings. So they became teachers, especially of the young men who would become the next generation’s rulers—wise and virtuous rulers, they hoped.
The New Technology: A Flood of Print The printing press transformed the way information was exchanged during the Renaissance. Before this, all books were laboriously written out by hand—you can imagine how difficult and expensive this was and how few books were available. The inventor of printing with movable type was a German named Johannes Gutenberg (1400– 1468). He printed the first complete book, an immense Latin Bible, at Mainz, Germany, around 1455. From there, the art and craft of printing spread to other cities in Germany and beyond. By 1500, relatively inexpensive books were available throughout western Europe.
Guttenburg’s Printing Press
The New Technology: A Flood of Print In 1476, printing reached England. In that year, William Caxton (1422– 1491), a merchant, diplomat, and writer, set up a printing press in Westminster (now part of London). In all, Caxton’s press issued about one hundred different titles, initiating a flood of print in English that is still increasing.
Two Friends—Two Humanists Desiderius Erasmus (1466? – 1536) is today perhaps the best known of all the Renaissance humanists. Erasmus was a Dutch monk, but he lived outside the monastery and loved to travel, visiting many of the countries in Europe, including Italy, France, Germany, and England. Because he wrote in Latin, he could address his many writings to all the educated people of western Europe. On his visits to England, Erasmus became friendly with a number of important people, among them a young lawyer named Thomas More (1477– 1535).
Two Friends—Two Humanists More and Erasmus had much in common: They both loved life, laughter, and classical learning, and they both were dedicated churchmen, though they were impatient with some of the Church’s corrupt practices at that time. Like Erasmus, More wrote in Latin—poems, pamphlets, biographies, and his famous treatise on human society, Utopia. More held a number of important offices, rose to the top of his profession, was knighted, and as lord chancellor, became one of the king’s chief ministers.
The Reformation: Breaking with the Church While the Renaissance was going on throughout Europe, there occurred in some countries another important series of events, called the Reformation. In England these two vast movements were closely related, and their forces were felt by all English writers. Reformers rejected the authority of the pope and the Italian churchmen. By the 1530 s, an open break with the Roman Catholic Church could no longer be avoided. By then a number of circumstances made such a break possible. Strong feelings of patriotism and national identity made the English people resent the financial burdens imposed on them by the Vatican—the pope, after all, was a foreign power in far -off Italy.
The Reformation: Breaking with the Church Moreover, new religious ideas were coming into England from the Continent, especially from Germany. There, a monk named Martin Luther (1483– 1546) was teaching a different kind of Christianity. His teachings were not based on what the pope said but rather on a personal understanding of the Bible. In addition, right at home in England, humanists like Thomas More and Desiderius Erasmus were ridiculing the ignorance and idleness of monks and the loose living and personal wealth of priest and bishops.
Martin Luther: Reformer
King Versus Pope: All for an Heir The conflict between the pope and the king of England came to a climax when Henry VIII wanted to get rid of his wife of twenty-four years. The Church did not allow divorce, so Henry needed a loophole. He asked Pope Clement VII to declare that he, Henry, was not properly married to his Spanish wife, Catherine of Aragon, because she had previously been married to his older brother Arthur, now dead. (It was against Church law to marry a dead sibling’s spouse. )
Catherine vs. Anne QUEEN Concubine
King Versus Pope: All for an Heir Henry had two motives for wanting to get rid of Catherine. First, although she had borne him a daughter, she was too old to give him the male heir that he thought he must have. What is more, the king now wished to marry Anne Boleyn, who had been his “favorite” for several years. The pope was not able to grant Henry the annulment of his marriage, even if he had wanted to, because the pope was controlled by Queen Catherine’s nephew, the emperor of Spain. So when he received the pope’s refusal in 1533, Henry appointed a new archbishop of Canterbury, who obligingly declared Henry’s marriage to Catherine invalid. In 1534, Henry concluded the break with Rome by declaring himself head of the English Church.
King Versus Pope Arthur Prince of Wales King Henry VIII
Baby-Mama-Drama Why did Henry want a divorce so badly that he broke with the church? Catherine was unable to have a son although she did produce a girl (Mary). He lusted after a maid in waiting…. And then fell in love with her sister, Ann Boleyn who refused to sleep with him unless they were married. He divorced Catherine and had a baby girl with Ann (Elizabeth). Catherine was put under house arrest because she refused to accept the annulment.
HENRY VIII=NOTORIOUS “King Henry the Eighth, to six wives he was wedded: One died, one survived, two divorced, two beheaded. "
Henry VIII: Renaissance Man and Executioner Henry VIII (reigned 1509– 1547) had six wives: After Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn, there were Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr. The sexual intrigues of the court trapped two of Henry’s wives: The king could play around, but he couldn’t tolerate suspicions of his wives’ fidelity. Like Thomas More, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard lost their heads on the chopping block.
Henry VIII: Renaissance Man and Executioner Despite his messy home life, Henry VIII was an important figure in history. He created the Royal Navy, which put a stop to foreign invasions of England provided the means for the political power, language, and literature of England to spread all over the globe. Henry himself deserves the title Renaissance man. He wrote poetry and played many musical instruments well; he was a champion athlete and a hunter; and he supported the new humanistic learning. In his old age, however, Henry was also coarse, dissolute, arrogant, and a womanizer. He died without knowing that the child he ignored because she was female would become the greatest ruler England ever had.
WIFIE + Queen Mary Ann Boleyn-aka Mom Jane Seymour of Aragon (divorced) (Beheaded) bore Edward I (Died) Ann of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr Aka “The Flander’s Mare” Adulterer (Beheaded) Married Thomas Seymour (Divorced) (Survived!)
Henry Catherine of Aragon Mary Henry Anne Boleyn Elizabeth Henry Jane Seymour Edward
The Protestant Reformation Henry closed all of England’s monasteries and sold the rich buildings and lands to his subjects. While the vast majority of his subjects agreed with Henry’s changes in the Church, some of them did not. The best known of those who remained loyal to the pope was Sir Thomas More, the lord chancellor of England. More felt he could not legally recognize his friend Henry as head of the Church. For More’s stubbornness, Henry ordered that More be beheaded.
The Protestant Reformation This was the very beginning of Protestantism in England. Many people were dissatisfied with the new church for reasons just the opposite of More’s. They felt that it was not reformed enough, that it was merely a copy of Catholicism, as in some ways it was. These people later became known as Puritans, Baptists, Presbyterians, Dissenters, and Nonconformists. Some of them said that religion was solely a matter between the individual and God. This idea, which is still the foundation of most Protestant churches, is closely related to the teachings of those Renaissance humanists who emphasized the freedom of all human beings.
After King Henry’s Death Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Grey 21 April ("The Nine 28 January Days' Queen") 1509– 1547– 1553 10 July– 19 July Catholic 1553 Protestant (Executed) Elizabeth I Mary I ("The Virgin ("Bloody Mary") Queen") 19 July 17 1553– 1558 November Catholic 1558– 1603 Protestant
The Boy King and Bloody Mary Henry VIII was survived by three children: Mary, Elizabeth, and Edward. According to the laws of succession, a son had to be crowned first, and so at age nine the son of Henry and Jane Seymour became Edward VI (reigned 1547– 1553). An intelligent but sickly boy, he ruled in name only while his relatives wielded the actual power. When Edward died (of tuberculosis), he was followed by his half-Spanish half-sister, Mary (reigned 1553– 1558). Mary was a devout, strong-willed Catholic determined to avenge the wrongs done to her mother, Catherine of Aragon. She restored the pope’s power in England ruthlessly hunted down Protestants.
Edward VI: Boy King
The Boy King and Bloody Mary If she had lived longer and exercised better judgment, Mary might have undone all her father’s accomplishments. She made a strategic error, however, when she burned about three hundred of her subjects at the stake. She further lost the support of her people when she married Philip II, king of Spain, a country England was beginning to fear and hate. Mary’s executions earned her the name Bloody Mary. Because she was childless, upon her death she was succeeded by her sister Elizabeth.
Bloody Mary On behalf of the Catholic Church…
Elizabeth: The Virgin Queen Elizabeth I (reigned 1558– 1603) was one of the most brilliant and successful monarchs in history. Since she inherited a kingdom torn by fierce religious feuds, her first task was to restore law and order. She reestablished the Church of England again rejected the pope’s authority. The pope excommunicated her. To keep Spain happy, she pretended that she just might marry her widowed brother-in-law, King Philip was the first of a long procession of noblemen, both foreign and English, who wanted to wed her. However, Elizabeth resisted marriage all her life and officially remained “the Virgin Queen. ” She knew that her strength lay in her independence and in her ability to play one suitor off against another.
A True Daughter A truly heroic person, Elizabeth survived many plots against her life. Several of these plots were initiated by her cousin, another Mary—Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. As Elizabeth had no children, Mary was heir to England’s throne because she too was a direct descendant of Henry VII. A Catholic, Mary was eventually deposed from her throne in Protestant Scotland. Put under house arrest, she lived as a royal exile in England, carefully watched by her cousin Elizabeth endured Mary and her plots for twenty years and then, a true daughter of her father, sent her Scottish cousin to the chopping block.
Accomplishments It was a major accomplishment that she ever survived to become Queen of England! Her mother was executed on the charge of Treason, adultery and incest. She was branded a bastard by her father, King Henry VIII. She lost her title of Princess Elizabeth and had to be referred to as Lady Elizabeth! It was a major accomplishment to survive the questioning she endured at the Tower of London when she was imprisoned there by her half-sister Mary Tudor ( aka Mary I & Bloody Mary). She was accused of being involved with the Protestant rebellion, led by Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger Her reign witnessed widespread increase in literacy and great achievements in the arts - great poets and playwrights emerged during her era such as William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, Christopher Marlowe and Sir Walter Raleigh)
Accomplishments The reign of Queen Elizabeth I also saw significant expansion overseas. Great explorers were encouraged such as Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir John Hawkins, Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Richard Greenville The new scientific thinking of the renaissance was encouraged and important men such as Sir Francis Bacon and Dr. John Dee emerged during the Elizabethan era She achieved an excellent reputation as a good and wise ruler, who was truly loved by her people - she was highly accomplished in the art of rhetoric and Public Relations
Elizabeth & Religion Queen Elizabeth adopted a moderate religious policy. The Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity (1559), the introduction of the Prayer Book of 1559, and the Thirty. Nine Articles (1563) were all Protestant in doctrine, but preserved many traditionally Catholic ceremonies. Although a Protestant she did not persecute Catholics with conviction - she adopted a moderate approach She established Protestantism as the country's religion
The Spanish Armada Sinks: A Turning Point in History King Philip of Spain, ever watchful for an opportunity to hammer at England, used Mary’s execution as an excuse to invade England. He assembled a vast fleet of warships for that purpose: the famous Spanish Armada. In 1588, England’s Royal Navy, assisted greatly by nasty weather in the Irish Sea, destroyed the Armada. This victory assured England’s and all of northern Europe’s independence from the powerful Catholic countries of the Mediterranean. It was a great turning point in history and Elizabeth’s finest moment. If Spain had prevailed, history would have been quite different: All of North America, like most of South America, might be speaking Spanish instead of English.
A Flood of Literature What is the connection between these political events and English literature? With their own religious and national identity firmly established, the English started writing as never before. After the defeat of the Armada, Elizabeth became a beloved symbol of peace, security, and prosperity to her subjects, and she provided inspiration to scores of English authors. They represented her in poetry, drama, and fiction as a mythological figure. Literary works that did not directly represent her were dedicated to her because authors knew she was a lover of literature, a person of remarkably wide learning, and something of a writer herself.
William Shakespeare Bio Born in Stratford on about April 23 rd 1564. His father William was a successful local businessman and his mother Mary was the daughter of a landowner. The family paid for Williams education, although there is no evidence he attended university. In 1582 William, aged only 18, married Anne Hathaway who was seven or eight years older. They had their first daughter, Susanna. They had another 2 children but William’s only son Hamnet died aged only 11.
Shakespeare Anne Hathaway
Shakespeare’s Bio Spent most of his time in London writing and performing in his plays. Didn’t mind being absent from his family - only returning home during Lent when all theatres were closed. In the 1590 s he wrote the majority of his sonnets. This was a time of prolific writing and his plays developed a good deal of interest and controversy. Due to some well timed investments he was able to secure a firm financial background leaving time for writing and acting. The best of these investments was buying some real estate near Stratford in 1605. It soon doubled in value.
Shakespeare’s Bio 1603 Shakespeare's theatrical company was taken under the patronage of King James I, and became known as the King's Company. In 1608, the company acquired the Black friars Theatre. Shakespeare soon joined the group of the now famous writers who gathered at Mermaid Tavern, located on Bread Street in Cheapside. Retired from theatre in 1610 and returned to Stratford.
Shakespeare’s Bio 1613 Globe Theatre burned down, but Shakespeare remained quite wealthy and contributed to the building of the new Globe Theatre. Shakespeare died on April 23, 1616 and was buried in the chancel of the Church of the Holy Trinity in Stratford. A monument to Shakespeare was set up on the north wall of the chancel, with a bust of Shakespeare.
The Globe Theater
Shakespeare’s Bio The bust and the engraving by Droeshout that prefixed the First Folio are the only renderings of Shakespeare that are considered to be accurate. In Shakespeare's will, he left most of his property to Susanna and her daughter, except for his "second-best bed, " which he left to his wife.
The Age of Shakespeare lived and worked between 1564 and 1616, placing him squarely in the long and important reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 -1603). The period—the age of Shakespeare— was shaped by Queen Elizabeth’s indomitable spirit, and is considered something of a golden age for English literature. Shakespeare is often at the forefront of our minds as an example of and great influence on Elizabethan England;
Shakespeare’s Curse On his Tombstone: “Good friend for Jesus sake forbear To dig the dust enclosed here Blest be the man that spares these Stones and curst be he that moves my Bones”
The Grave & Curse
Shakespeare Contributor Stands out in this period as a poet and playwright as yet unsurpassed. Gifted and incredibly versatile, and he surpassed "professionals" as Robert Greene who mocked this "shake-scene" of low origins. Though most dramas met with great success in the Elizabethan Era, it is in his later years (marked by the early reign of James I) that he wrote what have been considered his greatest plays: Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, and The Tempest. His plays have been translated into every major living language, and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.
Shakespeare’s Works Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1590 and 1613. Early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the sixteenth century. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest examples in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances.
Contributions Cont. There are four periods in Shakespeare's writing career. Until the mid-1590 s-wrote mainly comedies influenced by Roman and Italian models and history plays in the popular chronicle tradition. His second period about 1595 with the tragedy Romeo and Juliet and ended with the tragedy of Julius Caesar in 1599. During this time, he wrote what are considered his greatest comedies and histories. From about 1600 to about 1608, his "tragic period", Shakespeare wrote mostly tragedies 1608 to 1613, mainly romances.
Influence & Relevance Improvement of blank verse Combination of traditional with freer style. Development of characters Wide range of themes “He was not of an age, but for all time!” Ben Jonson Quote (1573 - 1637). . .
A Dull Man Succeeds a Witty Woman Elizabeth died childless. She was succeeded by her second cousin, James VI of Scotland, the son of Elizabeth’s cousin Mary. As James I of England (reigned 1603– 1626), he lacked Elizabeth’s ability to resolve critical issues. James was a spendthrift where Elizabeth had been thrifty; he was thick-tongued and goggle-eyed where she had been glamorous and witty; he was essentially a foreigner where she had been a complete Englishwoman. James I tried hard. He wrote learned books; he patronized Shakespeare; he sponsored a new translation of the Bible; and he was in many respects an admirable man and a benevolent, peaceful ruler. Yet his relationship with many of his subjects went from bad to worse.
The Decline of the Renaissance James’s son and successor, Charles I (reigned 1625– 1649), turned out to be remote, autocratic, and self-destructive. Some of his most powerful subjects had him beheaded in 1649. For the next eleven years, England was ruled by Parliament and the Puritan dictator Oliver Cromwell, not by an anointed king. When Charles’s son came to power eleven years later, in 1660, England had changed in many important ways.
The Decline of the Renaissance Of course the Renaissance did not end in 1660 when Charles II returned from exile in France, just as it had not begun on a specific date. Renaissance values, which were primarily moral and religious, gradually eroded, and Renaissance energies gradually gave out. The last great writer of the English Renaissance was John Milton, who lived on into an age in which educated people were becoming more worldly in their outlook. Scientific truths were soon to challenge longaccepted religious beliefs.
The Decline of the Renaissance The English Renaissance was over. And so is this Power Point : o) Elizabeth I Bloody Mary