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THE RENAISSANCE 1300 -1500 Module 8 Lesson 1 – Birth of the Renaissance Lesson 2 – The Italian Renaissance Lesson 3 – The Northern Renaissance Lesson 4 - Renaissance Achievements
BIRTH OF THE RENAISSANCE LESSON 1 ü The Renaissance was a rebirth of learning and art. ü During the late Middle Ages, Europe suffered from both war and the plague. Those who survived wanted something new, to celebrate life and the human spirit. ü They began to question things that were unable to prevent war or relieve suffering brought on by the plaque. ü Writers and Artists began to express this new spirit and experiment with different style. These men and women would change how Europeans saw themselves and their world.
A TIME OF CHANGE ü Explosion of creativity in art architecture, writing, and thought. ü New styles of art and literature. ü Led to new values: individualism, or the belief in the importance of the individual. ü Because famine and disease created a smaller population, with fewer people to feed, the standard of living was higher. ü People were better educated, with schools in local towns providing a basic education. ü Increase in trade led to a new class of people, the middle class (merchants, bankers, and tradespeople) now had enough money to meet their basic needs, used the surplus to buy luxury goods, which expanded the economy.
CLASSICAL AND WORLDLY VALUES ü As European scholars studied Greek writers and thinkers, by became more influenced by classical ideas. These ideas helped them develop a new outlook on life and art. ü The study of classical texts let to Humanism an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements. Humanists popularized the study of subjects common to classical education, such as history, literature, and philosophy. These are called the Humanities comes from a Latin term that means “Studies of Human Nature”
THE RENAISSANCE MAN AND WOMEN The Renaissance Man During the Renaissance, as the idea of the individual became increasingly important, Renaissance writers introduced the idea of the “ideal” individual. This ideal person was expected to create art and to try to master almost every area of study. A man who excelled in many fields was praised as a “universal man. ” Later ages called such people “Renaissance men. ” The Renaissance Woman Upper-class women should also know the classics and be charming. Yet they were not expected to seek fame. They were expected to inspire art but rarely to create it. Upper-class Renaissance women were better educated than medieval women. However, most Renaissance women had little influence in politics.
RISE OF ITALIAN CITY-STATES The final major factor that contributed to the Renaissance was the rise of city-states in Italy. At a time when most of Europe was rural, agricultural, and manorial, Italy was much more urban and commercial. Since cities are often places where people exchange ideas, they were an ideal breeding ground for an intellectual revolution. Venice – Milan – Naples – Florence - Rome
VOCAB-READING CHECK Renaissance: Period of rebirth of art and learning in Europe lasting from about 1300 to 1600 Humanism: Focus on human potential and achievements Secular: Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters Patron: Person who financially supported artists
VOCAB-READING CHECK q How did increasing global contact affect Europe? It exposed Europeans to ideas, inventions, and knowledge from Asia and the Islamic world and reintroduced the knowledge and philosophy of ancient Greece and Rome. q How was Italy unlike other countries in Europe? Instead of a single nation-state with a strong central government, it included a number of city-states each with ruler. its own q How was expectations for Renaissance Men and Women similar? Both were expected to be educated and knowledgeable about art and culture.
THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE LESSON 2 The Renaissance began in northern Italy’s city-states were wealthy, with an advanced urban society, and they felt a sense of connection with the classical past of ancient Rome and Greece. During the Renaissance, these city-states were home to some of the world’s most extraordinary writers and artists.
ARTISTS Renaissance painters used a technique of perspective, a way of showing three dimensions on a flat surface. Perspective creates the appearance of three dimensions. Perspective is based on an optical illusion. As parallel lines stretch away from a viewer, they seem to draw together, until they meet at a spot on the horizon called the vanishing point.
Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks—and life—are mysterious. Some 3, 500 pages closely covered with writings and drawings survive. His writing is clear and easy to read, but only if you look at it in a mirror. No one knows why he wrote backwards. Leonardo planned scholarly works and great feats of engineering that were never completed. Only 17 of his paintings survive. And yet the work that Leonardo did produce is so extraordinary that it confirms his genius. (Mona Lisa and The Last Supper) Michelangelo was a Renaissance man. He excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet. He is most famous for the way he portrayed the human body in painting and sculpture. Among his most notable paintings are the frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. His sculptures include the Pietà and his statue of David. His architectural and engineering works include the design for the dome of St. Peter’s and for the Capitoline Square.
VOCAB AND READING CHECKS Perspective: Art technique that re-creates three dimensions Leonardo da Vinci: Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist Michelangelo: Italian sculptor, architect, painter, and poet How were Leonardo and Michelangelo alike? Both were Renaissance men skilled in painting, sculpture, architecture, and engineering. Does Machiavelli think that a prince should prefer to be loved or feared? Fear: people are more likely to respond to someone they fear.
THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE LESSON 3 The work of such artists as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael showed the Renaissance spirit. All three artists demonstrated an interest in classical culture, a curiosity about the world, and a belief in human potential. Humanist writers expanded ideas about individuality. These ideas impressed scholars, students, and merchants who visited Italy. By the late 1400 s, Renaissance ideas had spread to northern Europe— especially England, France, Germany, and Flanders (now part of France and the Netherlands).
THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE BEGINS • By 1450 Population was beginning to grow again in northern Europe • England France unified under strong Monarchs who sponsored the arts • Francis 1 of France hired Italian artist and architects to rebuild and decorate his castle, which became a showcase for Renaissance art. (Fontainebleau) • Renaissance ideas spread from Italy and blended with northern traditions that developed its own character. (Ideal of Human dignity inspired social reform based on Judeo-Christian values. )
NORTHERN WRITERS TRY TO REFORM SOCIETY • Italian Humanists were very interested in reviving classical languages and texts. They were critical of the failure of the Christian Church to inspire people to live a Christian life. A new movement began known as Christian humanism. It promoted the education of women and founded schools attended by boys and girls. • Women’s Reforms: During this period of time the vast majority of Europeans were unable to read or write. Those who could afford formal education usually only sent their sons. One women spoke against this practice. • Christine de Pizan was highly educated and become one of the first women to earn a living as a writer. Her work usually questioned the different treatment of boys and girls, but her goal of formal education for both sexes would not be achieved for several centuries.
THE ELIZABETHAN AGE • The Renaissance spread to England in mid-1500’s. Queen Elizabeth 1 was well educated and spoke French, Italian, Latin, and Greek. She also wrote poetry and music. As Queen she supported the development of English art and literature. • William Shakespeare the most famous writer of the Elizabethan Age is considered the greatest playwright of all time. His work displayed a masterful command of the English language and deep understanding of human beings. • Shakespeare’s most famous plays included Macbeth, Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet and King Lear. Even though he has been dead for almost 400 years his work still remains a favorite of filmmakers.
PRINTING SPREADS RENAISSANCE IDEAS Around 1440 Johann Gutenberg a craftsman from Germany developed a printing press that made it possible to produce books quickly and cheaply. Gutenberg printed a complete Bible the Gutenberg Bible in about 1453, it was the first fullsized book printed with movable type. The printing press enabled a printer to produce hundreds of copies of a single work. For the first time books were cheap enough that many people could buy them.
VOCAB AND READING CHECKS Utopia: An ideal place William Shakespeare: Famous Renaissance writer Johann Gutenberg: German craftsman who developed the printing press How did the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance? Stronger interest in realistic art, more of an emphasis on changing society What techniques did Bruegel use to give life to his paintings? Rich Colors, Vivid Details, balanced use of space
VOCAB AND READING CHECKS What kind of reform does de Pizan argue for? Education for Women What are the two ways that Shakespeare’s work showed Renaissance influences? Drew from the classics and displayed a deep understanding of human beings combined with a high idea of human nature How did the invention of the printing press affect the dissemination of knowledge and ideas? It made books readily available and cheap enough for many people to afford
RENAISSANCE ACHIEVEMENTS LESSON 4 • The ideas and innovations introduced during the Renaissance had far-reaching effects. The way people interacted with their world was profoundly altered. Some Renaissance innovations laid the foundation for global changes in the years that followed. • The European Renaissance was a period of great artistic and social change. It marked a break with the medieval ideals that were focused around the Church. The Renaissance belief in the dignity of the individual played a key role in the gradual rise of democratic ideas. Furthermore, the impact of the movable-type printing press was tremendous. Some historians have suggested that its effects were even more dramatic than the arrival of personal computers in the 20 th century.
CHANGES IN ART, LITERATURE Art: Artistic styles changed bringing humanistic ideas instead of religious subjects. Oil Paint: Using oils as a binding agent, the longer drying time gave artists more time to create more detail. Perspective; a new technique to show three dimensions on flat surface Literature: Vernacular: writing in their own native language meant that books could be read by anyone, not just people who had been taught Latin. Renaissance writers wrote either for self-expression or to portray the individuality of their subjects.
CHANGES IN ARCHITECTURE, SOCIETY Architecture: Classical style that spread to many countries, combined with local tradition create changes in style. Society: More people had an access to books, which led to an increase in literacy rates. The spread of knowledge and ideas led people to begin to challenge some of the structures of establish religion and government. Skepticism: One of the hallmarks of the Renaissance was a questioning attitude. People were no longer willing to blindly follow tradition and accept authority. They want to form their own opinions and make up their own minds. This practice of thinking became part of scientific method that transformed medicine, physics, and other branches of science.
Santa Maria Novelle Florence The château of Ecouen Dome of the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore by Brunelleschi. The château of Blois. The Tempietto by Bramante in Rome St Peter's Basilica, Rome.
VOCAB & READING CHECKS Vernacular: Use of native language instead of classical Latin Skepticism: Questioning ideas before accepting them How is the influence of Renaissance architecture seen today? Features like pillars and arches are still used in building today. How is the Renaissance emphasis on the individual connected to the renewed interest in skepticism? The focus on the individual made it easier for people to ask questions and make up their own minds