THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ALCOHOL USE

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ALCOHOL USE American College Health Association Annual Meeting,

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ALCOHOL USE American College Health Association Annual Meeting, June 4, 2010 Julie A. White Nahoko Kawakyu O’Connor University of Rochester, Warner Graduate School of Education

About Us Julie Health Education, Social Norms, Gender and Health Critical Sociological and Multicultural

About Us Julie Health Education, Social Norms, Gender and Health Critical Sociological and Multicultural Theories Community Colleges Financial Aid Policy Nahoko Financial Aid Policy Social and Class Stratification and Reproduction Assessment and Evaluation Research Methods

About the Research Team Margaret Yerdon, Ph. D. candidate Andrew Wall, Ph. D.

About the Research Team Margaret Yerdon, Ph. D. candidate Andrew Wall, Ph. D.

Presentation Goals Re-examine current framework to understand alcohol consumption among college students. Present alternative

Presentation Goals Re-examine current framework to understand alcohol consumption among college students. Present alternative conceptual framework, using Social Capital Theory. Present original research results examining the relationship between alcohol use and social capital. Present implications for education and prevention programs.

Re-examination of current framework: Ideas to Consider Idea to be Addressed Desired Learning Alcohol

Re-examination of current framework: Ideas to Consider Idea to be Addressed Desired Learning Alcohol has an under-articulated rationale for institutional concern. Examine and critique the primary rationale for alcohol as a concern. Alcohol use by college students is too often treated without specific higher education organizational context. Examine alcohol within higher education organizational and cultural framework. Alcohol in college has been overwhelmingly examined from a medical or psychological perspective. Examine alcohol from a sociological and political viewpoint. To consider how our legal, public health, and education rationale for higher education action related to alcohol use might be extended. Propose an overarching social justice rationale for addressing alcohol use in college environments.

Re-examination of current framework: Current Paradigms Paradigm Description Medical Model Physical and biological, individual

Re-examination of current framework: Current Paradigms Paradigm Description Medical Model Physical and biological, individual focused Psychological (Psycho-social) Attitudes, beliefs, cognitive function of individuals Public Health Environmental - Prevention

Conceptual Framework: Social Justice Redistributio n/Recognition North, 2006 Same ness/ Differ ence Macro/Micro

Conceptual Framework: Social Justice Redistributio n/Recognition North, 2006 Same ness/ Differ ence Macro/Micro

Conceptual Framework: Social Justice * Alcohol consumption as a social justice issue: Ensuring our

Conceptual Framework: Social Justice * Alcohol consumption as a social justice issue: Ensuring our institutions are just, equitable environments, rather than social structures that reify social inequities.

Re-examination of current framework: Reasons for Drinking Enhancement- heighten positive mood (internal motivation) Conformity-

Re-examination of current framework: Reasons for Drinking Enhancement- heighten positive mood (internal motivation) Conformity- avoid rejection (external motivation) Social- obtain positive social rewards (specific to social context) Coping- reduce negative emotions (internal factors) (Cooper, 1994)

Conceptual Framework: Sociological Framework Symbolic Interactionism The looking glass self Social Capital (Bourdieu) Field

Conceptual Framework: Sociological Framework Symbolic Interactionism The looking glass self Social Capital (Bourdieu) Field Habitus Power

Symbolic Interactionism “Looking-glass self” (Cooley, people behave in 1902): a social space consistent with

Symbolic Interactionism “Looking-glass self” (Cooley, people behave in 1902): a social space consistent with their perception of they believe others expect them to behave within a given social space Student alcohol culture emerges in the social interactions of students within the social context of higher education: Socially negotiated Evolving Temporally constrained

Social Capital Theory (Bourdieu, 1989) Field: • the idea that social spaces have their

Social Capital Theory (Bourdieu, 1989) Field: • the idea that social spaces have their own rules, conceptual organization, and power dynamics Habitus: • the almost unconscious scheme of socially interpreted understandings of the rules associated with a given social field

Consider… Social capital is “the thesis that privileged individuals maintain their position by using

Consider… Social capital is “the thesis that privileged individuals maintain their position by using their connections with other privileged people” (Field, 2008, p. 31) Professionals who drink socially have more social capital and higher salaries (Peters & Stringham, 2006) Students report engaging in high-risk behaviors in order to benefit from prestige associated with that behavior (Lynch, 1990) Student groups that consume the largest amounts of alcohol are also generally those with the most social prestige and power (athletes, members of Greek organizations, White students, males, four-year institutions) (Capraro, 2000; Sheffield, Darkes, Del Boca, & Goldman, 2005; Wechsler & Kuo, 2003).

Re-Examining College Alcohol Consumption Social Capital Theory Symbolic Interactionism Social Justic e

Re-Examining College Alcohol Consumption Social Capital Theory Symbolic Interactionism Social Justic e

Research Questions Are there differences and similarities in the different student populations? How does

Research Questions Are there differences and similarities in the different student populations? How does the consumption of alcohol in certain social networks allow members of the network to gain social capital? How do hegemonic notions of masculinity and femininity adhere within different social networks?

Methods Sequential Mixed Method Design Survey development, interviews, focus groups Three subpopulations (1 st

Methods Sequential Mixed Method Design Survey development, interviews, focus groups Three subpopulations (1 st year, athletes, community college students)

Preliminary Results

Preliminary Results

The Students N= 530; response rate= 47. 41% 1 st year students Athletes Community

The Students N= 530; response rate= 47. 41% 1 st year students Athletes Community College students Male 39% 56% 23% Female 61% 44% 77% On campus 100% 98. 8% 3. 4% Off campus 0% 1. 2% 96. 6% No employment 62. 4% 20% 38. 3% Part-time 37. 6% 80% 44% Full-time 0% 0% 17. 7% None 11. 4% 14. 5% 86. 8% Low 21. 1% 31% 9. 8% Moderate 53. 7% 42. 5% 2. 9% High 13. 8% 12% . 6% Sex Housing Employment Student Organization

Research Question #1: Are there differences and similarities in the different student populations in

Research Question #1: Are there differences and similarities in the different student populations in alcohol consumption and its role in accessing social capital?

Different populations • Students who are in an NCAA team drink more than students

Different populations • Students who are in an NCAA team drink more than students who are not members of a NCAA sports team. Drinks/week = 5. 613 + 3. 858 (athlete) • Fraternity members drink more than non-members. Drinks/ week = 7. 126 + 14. 124 (fraternity) • Women have a significantly lower rate of alcohol consumption than men. Drinks/week = 5. 323 + 6. 286 (men) • Students at 2 -year institutions report significantly lower alcohol consumption than students at 4 -year institutions. Drinks/week = 4. 714 +4. 045 (4 year institution)

Access to Social Capital Athletes report a significantly higher access to social capital through

Access to Social Capital Athletes report a significantly higher access to social capital through alcohol consumption than those who are not part of this social network (mean = 3. 89, s. d. =. 893, t(293)=-5. 26, p≤. 001). Goal 3: Results Members of community service organizations do not differ in their perception of access to social capital through drinking than non-members (mean=3. 45, s. d. = 1. 34, t(10. 84)=-. 45, p>. 05) Academic Greek organizations do not differ in their perception of access to social capital, but social Greek organizations report an increase in access to social capital through drinking.

Research Question #2: How does the consumption of alcohol in certain social networks allow

Research Question #2: How does the consumption of alcohol in certain social networks allow members of the network to gain social capital?

Using Social Capital Theory In certain social networks (fields), there is a social norm

Using Social Capital Theory In certain social networks (fields), there is a social norm (habitus) that alcohol consumption leads to increased social benefits and resources (capital). There is a difference in perceived access to social capital between different types of social networks.

Examples from the Data Students revealed that the alcohol consumption of a prospective member

Examples from the Data Students revealed that the alcohol consumption of a prospective member was a notable factor of fit into the organization. Data revealed that if students do not want to drink, they will not go to the parties where they know they are serving alcohol and choose to do something else. It was understood that the norm of certain social spaces was to consume alcohol. Alcohol use functions as a gatekeeper to social networks. Access to social group membership and benefit is at times restricted based upon self-commitment to non-use.

Research Question 3: How do hegemonic notions of masculinity and femininity adhere within different

Research Question 3: How do hegemonic notions of masculinity and femininity adhere within different social networks? (community college students)

Gender norms and age There are no significant age-related differences in adherence to hegemonic

Gender norms and age There are no significant age-related differences in adherence to hegemonic gender norms for women. F(1, 102) =. 003, p=. 960. Average hegemonic gender norms scores of men aged 17 -24 (M=15. 22 SD=2. 16) are significantly different from the average hegemonic gender norms scores of men 25 and over (M=13, SD=2. 00). t (27) =2. 765, p =. 010

Gender and amount of drinking There is no statistically significant difference in amount of

Gender and amount of drinking There is no statistically significant difference in amount of drinking between women who adhere to feminine norms and those who do not. There is no statistically significant difference in amount of drinking between men who adhere to masculine norms and those who do not. One-way ANOVA—there is no statistically significant difference between women who scored high on the feminine scale and those who did not, in incidents of 5 or more drinks in a typical week. F (1, 138)=. 820, p=. 367 One-way ANOVA—there is no statistically significant difference between men who scored high on the masculine scale and those who did not, in incidents of 5 or more drinks in a typical week. F (1, 40)=. 001, p=. 981 Same for 5 or more in past week. F (1, 138)=. 104, p=. 748 Same for 5 or more in past week. F (1, 40)=1. 143, p=. 292

Women and masculine norms Some studies (Montemurro, B. & Mc. Clure, B. , 2005;

Women and masculine norms Some studies (Montemurro, B. & Mc. Clure, B. , 2005; Good, et al. , 2008) found that women who score higher on masculine scales drink more. There is a statistically significant difference in instances of 5 or more drinks/day in the past week, among women who score higher on the masculine gender scale. F(1, 116)=4. 098, p=. 045

Drink like a guy Drink to be LIKED by a guy Women and masculine

Drink like a guy Drink to be LIKED by a guy Women and masculine norms

Implications Practice of Prevention Group level intervention, culture change (coalition building) Need to be

Implications Practice of Prevention Group level intervention, culture change (coalition building) Need to be experts in student life Prevention as dialogue Reflective practice Competence and expertise Community organizing

Summary Alcohol defines the field for college students Accepting association of alcohol use with

Summary Alcohol defines the field for college students Accepting association of alcohol use with prestige and social capital can lead to macro and micro aggressions which are accepted as part of college life. Alcohol use and its related student culture and power dynamics are not inevitable, should be questioned, and deserves further attention. Those who drink the most, and benefit from the social prestige of use, also engage in behaviors that reinforce their power status.

Questions?

Questions?

Contacts Julie A. White julie. white@warner. rochester. edu (585) 262 -1665 Twitter: CCEd. JWhite

Contacts Julie A. White julie. [email protected] rochester. edu (585) 262 -1665 Twitter: CCEd. JWhite Nahoko Kawakyu O’Connor nahoko. [email protected] rochester. edu (585) 402 -0678 Andrew F. Wall [email protected] rochester. edu

References Bourdieu, P. (1985). The social space and the genesis of groups. Theory and

References Bourdieu, P. (1985). The social space and the genesis of groups. Theory and Society, 14(6). 723 -744. Bourdieu, P. (1989). Social space and symbolic power. Sociological theory, 7(1). 14 -25. Capraro, R. L. (2000). Why college men drink: Alcohol, adventure, and the paradox of masculinity. Journal of American College Health (48), 307 -315. Cooley, C. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Cooper, M. L. (1994). Motivations for alcohol use among adolescents: Development and validation of a four-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 6, 117 -128. Good, G. E. , Schopp, L. H. , Thomson, D. , Hathaway, S. L. , Mazurek, M. O. , Sanford-Martens, T. C. (2008). Men with serious injuries: Relations among masculinity, age, and alcohol use. Rehabilitation Psychology (53)1, 39 -45. Lynch, S. (1990). Edgework: A social psychological analysis of voluntary risk taking. American Journal of Sociology, 95(4), 851 -886. Montemurro, B. & Mc. Clure, B. 2005. Changing gender norms for alcohol consumption: Social drinking and lowered

References North, C. E. (2006). More than words? Delving into the substantive meaning(s) of

References North, C. E. (2006). More than words? Delving into the substantive meaning(s) of “social justice” in education. Review of Educational Research, 76(4), 507 -535. Peters, B. L. & Stringham, E. (2006). No booze? You may lose: Why drinkers earn more money than nondrinkers. Journal of Labor Research, 28(3). 411 -421. Sheffield, F. D. , Darkes, J. , Del Boca, F. K. , & Goldman, M. S. (2005). Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among community college students Implications for prevention policy. Journal of American College Health, 54(3). 137 -141. Weaver, J. B. , III, & Sargent, S. L. (2007). GRI-14: Gender Role Inventory (14 Items). In R. A. Reynolds, R. Woods, & J. Baker (Eds. ), Handbook of research on electronic surveys and measurement (pp. 367 -370). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Reference. Wechsler, H. , & Kuo, M. (2003). Watering down the drinks: The moderating effect of college demographics on alcohol use of high-risk groups. American Journal of Public Health, 93(11), 1929 -1933. Yeung, King-To, and Martin, John Levi. (2003). The looking glass self: An empirical test and elaboration. Social Forces 81 (3), pp. 843 -879.