The Reformation At a Glance Roots of Change

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The Reformation: At a Glance

The Reformation: At a Glance

Roots of Change • Rise of middle class • Printing press • Humanism of

Roots of Change • Rise of middle class • Printing press • Humanism of the Renaissance

Print Revolution • Did not cause reform, but helped it progress • Johannes Gutenberg

Print Revolution • Did not cause reform, but helped it progress • Johannes Gutenberg – published Bibles 1450 s Mainz, Germany • Books usually religious or classical (Cicero) • Standardized language

Christian Humanism • Christian Humanism – applied techniques of Italian humanists to study authorities

Christian Humanism • Christian Humanism – applied techniques of Italian humanists to study authorities and texts of the Church • Program of reform and NOT a philosophy • Education is the key to reforming Christianity Sir Thomas More Hans Holbein the Younger 1527

Christian Humanism & Education The Polyglot Bible, 1522 • Goal: make Christians better •

Christian Humanism & Education The Polyglot Bible, 1522 • Goal: make Christians better • Problem: Church had always overseen education; rote memorization of bible passages and Church teachings • 16 th Century: Scholasticism texts studied through commentaries; leads to debate – Who is right? • Education for those not destined to become clergy

Father of Christian Humanism: Desiderius Erasmus In Praise of Folly (1509) – satire of

Father of Christian Humanism: Desiderius Erasmus In Praise of Folly (1509) – satire of abuses in Church Devoted life to restoring direct connection between individual and Christ/God 22 rules on how to lead a Christian life Desiderius Erasmus Hans Holbein the Younger 1523

Catholic Church Corruption Indulgences Nepotism giving church offices to relatives Simony selling Church offices

Catholic Church Corruption Indulgences Nepotism giving church offices to relatives Simony selling Church offices Moral Abuses Tithe

Demand for Reform Overall, people wanted greater spiritual fulfillment So, it’s natural that they

Demand for Reform Overall, people wanted greater spiritual fulfillment So, it’s natural that they would expect more from those who were supposed to provide that fulfillment Expectations powered demand for reform

Martin Luther (1483 -1546) German 1505 – religious awakening Monk and teacher Frustrated with

Martin Luther (1483 -1546) German 1505 – religious awakening Monk and teacher Frustrated with faith Romans 1: 17 – “The just shall live by faith”

Indulgences The moment the money tinkles in the collecting box, a soul flies out

Indulgences The moment the money tinkles in the collecting box, a soul flies out of purgatory • Confession isn’t easy so indulgences are a good subsitute • Frederick III “The Wise” of Saxony – 17, 000 relics would keep him out of purgatory for 250, 000 years • Pope offers indulgences to finance building projects

Martin Luther (1483 -1546) • Protests indulgences • Pope Leo X instructs John Tetzel

Martin Luther (1483 -1546) • Protests indulgences • Pope Leo X instructs John Tetzel to sell indulgences for Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome – “When a coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs”

Spread of Luther’s Ideas • October 31, 1517: 95 Theses posted on door of

Spread of Luther’s Ideas • October 31, 1517: 95 Theses posted on door of Castle Church in Wittenberg • Someone quickly copied his words and took them to the printer!

Luther’s Beliefs • Sola Fide: “Salvation by faith alone” • Sola Scriptura: Religious authority

Luther’s Beliefs • Sola Fide: “Salvation by faith alone” • Sola Scriptura: Religious authority resides in the Bible and is open to interpretation by individuals • Equality before God education for women; no one is more spiritual than another

Luther’s Beliefs • Only two sacraments: baptism and communion • Religious services in vernacular

Luther’s Beliefs • Only two sacraments: baptism and communion • Religious services in vernacular language (not Latin) • Clergy should be allowed to marry

 • Response to Luther by Leaders 1520 Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther for

• Response to Luther by Leaders 1520 Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther for • 1521 heresy Diet of Worms (meeting led by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) – Luther refuses to take back his beliefs Edict of Worms – Charles V forbids Luther from preaching and declares him a heretic Frederick III (German prince) protects Luther

Response to Luther by People • 1524 -1525 • 1540’s • 1555 Peasants’ Revolt

Response to Luther by People • 1524 -1525 • 1540’s • 1555 Peasants’ Revolt - Germans against landowners Luther refuses to support Charles V wages war against Protestant Princes Peace of Augsburg ends war and allows princes to choose (Lutheranism or Catholicism)

Protestant Reformation The Reformation brought about the establishment of several new “Protestant” churches and

Protestant Reformation The Reformation brought about the establishment of several new “Protestant” churches and literally shattered the religious unity of Western Europe

Overview of Other Protestant Faiths

Overview of Other Protestant Faiths

Calvinism John Calvin (15091564) Calvinists: predestination “Elect” chosen in advance by God These people

Calvinism John Calvin (15091564) Calvinists: predestination “Elect” chosen in advance by God These people lead the church and go to heaven.

Calvinism: Protestant Work Ethic Despite predestination, followers are still commanded to live in a

Calvinism: Protestant Work Ethic Despite predestination, followers are still commanded to live in a God-pleasing way. Constant labor for personal salvation

Anabaptists Northeastern German states Adult Baptism - being “born again” into a life of

Anabaptists Northeastern German states Adult Baptism - being “born again” into a life of Christ

Preview: English Reformation • Henry VIII lacks male heir • Seeks annulment from Pope

Preview: English Reformation • Henry VIII lacks male heir • Seeks annulment from Pope so he can remarry • Pope denies annulment • Act of Supremacy (1534) • Henry is head of the Church of England (Anglican Church)