- Slides: 7
The Post-Colonial State: A disrupted political system Introduction
Con Empires The Spanish & Port. Backgroundt • ine Em nta pir l e went Many of today’s independent nations For al orm Inf pire Em through a period during which they belonged to, and were ruled by, other cultures and states. • This was particularly true during the great period of European Colonial Expansion starting with the Portuguese and Spaniards at the end of the c 15. ma l Em pire Mainly 16 -18 centuries
Geography • Most of the states that became colonial territories are (a) in the Tropics, (b) most of the Less-Developed Countries • Did Colonialism make them poor? Or, were they poor to start with? • Is the Tropics intrinsically poor holding back state formation? “Environmental Determinism. ”
The Relationship. • It was Unidirectional. The Europeans went there to extract wealth, and later, to change the places to their needs. • Center-Periphery relationship of dependency. • They became part of the Colonial Economy, which was a one-sided bargain. • The state-formation was frozen, terminated or distorted.
The Timing. • This went in phases (a) the search for gold, (b) trade and slaves, (c) colonial and imperial rule. • It kept many parts of the world out of fair participation in the Industrial Revolution, and extracted value-added. • It plunged these places into independence in a Divided World created by European Colonialism.
The Process • The instruments of state were replaced by the instruments of administration. • There was a total absence of local politics or involvements, except under Indirect Rule. • The arrival of colonialism was a Quantum Break with the culture and history of these regions, and their partition into artificial “states”.
Briefly… • In Latin America the indigenous state structure was destroyed by conquest and replaced by rich immigrant landowners. • In Africa the state structure was totally destroyed by slavery and colonial competition drew the boundaries. • In Asia the states were better established and survived (for a while) or still exist.