The POLST Paradigm Respecting Patient Preferences Terri Schmidt

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The POLST Paradigm: Respecting Patient Preferences Terri Schmidt MD, MS Center for Ethics in

The POLST Paradigm: Respecting Patient Preferences Terri Schmidt MD, MS Center for Ethics in Health Care Department of Emergency Medicine Oregon Health & Sciences University Clackamas County EMS

Purpose of POLST • To provide a mechanism to communicate patient preferences for end-of-life

Purpose of POLST • To provide a mechanism to communicate patient preferences for end-of-life treatment across treatment settings

“If I have cancer or something, [resuscitation] is a waste of time, because you

“If I have cancer or something, [resuscitation] is a waste of time, because you know you’re going to die. I would like to be in a hospice situation where there is someone to hold your hand or make sure you are comfortable. ”

Definitions • Advance directives – Directive to physicians/living will – Power of attorney for

Definitions • Advance directives – Directive to physicians/living will – Power of attorney for health care • Do not attempt resuscitation-DNAR • POLST and POLST paradigm

ADVANCE DIRECTIVE POLST For whom For all adults Purpose To express values and Medical

ADVANCE DIRECTIVE POLST For whom For all adults Purpose To express values and Medical orders which turn appoint a surrogate a patient’s values into Guide actions by Emergency Medical Personnel Guide treatment decisions in the hospital For persons of any age with advanced illness (future wishes) Usually not action (applies today) Yes Yes

What Is POLST • A health care provider’s order • Can be completed by

What Is POLST • A health care provider’s order • Can be completed by others (SW, RN) but must be signed by MD, DO, NP or PA – May be a verbal order from one of the above, signed by an RN • Consistent recognized document

Development of POLST Consensus development Began in 1991 Ongoing revision process Voluntary process in

Development of POLST Consensus development Began in 1991 Ongoing revision process Voluntary process in Oregon, legislated in some other states • Now used in more than 30 states • National POLST Advisory panel • •

Elements of the POLST Paradigm • • Medical order form Accompanies patient Bright, unique

Elements of the POLST Paradigm • • Medical order form Accompanies patient Bright, unique color (Pink in OR, Green in WA) Training of professionals DNAR orders Limit or provide other interventions Decisions about transport, ICU, nutrition, antibiotics

National POLST Development

National POLST Development

“If I am unconscious at the last moment then I don’t want any machines

“If I am unconscious at the last moment then I don’t want any machines or anything. ”

Oregon Regulations that facilitated POLST • Advance Directive Statute (ORS 127. 531) • EMT

Oregon Regulations that facilitated POLST • Advance Directive Statute (ORS 127. 531) • EMT Scope of Practice [OAR 847 -35 -0030(6)]. – The Oregon Medical Board has defined the Scope of Practice so that an Oregon-certified First Responder or EMT shall comply with life-sustaining treatment orders executed by a physician, physician assistant or nurse practitioner • Directive by OMB that physicians honor it in emergency departments

Requirements to Make the Form Valid • Patient name • Resuscitation orders • Provider

Requirements to Make the Form Valid • Patient name • Resuscitation orders • Provider signature and date all other information is optional…in Oregon it does not require signature of patient (verbal orders signed by an RN are acceptable)

Validation of POLST • Dunn PM, Schmidt TA et al: A method to communicate

Validation of POLST • Dunn PM, Schmidt TA et al: A method to communicate patient preferences about medically indicated life sustaining treatment JAGS 1996; 44: 785 • Tolle SW, Tilden VP, Nelson CA, Dunn PM: A Prospective study of the efficacy of the POLST JAGS 1998; 46: 1097 • Lee MA, Brummel-Smith K et al: Physician orders for life-sustaining treatment (POLST): Outcomes in a PACE program JAGS 2000; 48: 1 -6.

 • Schmidt TA, Hickman SE, Tolle SW, Brooks HS: The Physician Orders for

• Schmidt TA, Hickman SE, Tolle SW, Brooks HS: The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment Program: Oregon Emergency Medical Technicians’ Practical Experience and Attitudes JAGS 2004; 52: 1430 -34. • Hickman SE, Tolle SW, Brummel-Smith K, Carley MM: Use of POLST (The Physician Orders for Life. Sustaining Treatment Program) in Oregon Nursing Facilities JAGS 2004; 52: 1424 -2 • Hickman SE, Nelson CA, Perrin NA, Moss AH, Hammes BJ, Tolle S: A comparison of methods tp communicate treatment preferences in nursing facilities: Traditional practices versus the physician orders for life-sustaining treatment program JAGS 2010 Jul; 58(7): 1241 -8.

 • Schmidt TA, Hickman SE, Tolle SW, Brooks HS: The Physician Orders for

• Schmidt TA, Hickman SE, Tolle SW, Brooks HS: The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment Program: Oregon Emergency Medical Technicians’ Practical Experience and Attitudes JAGS 2004; 52: 1430 -34

Methods • Anonymous survey mailed in 2002 to a stratified random sample of Oregon

Methods • Anonymous survey mailed in 2002 to a stratified random sample of Oregon paramedics and EMT-Intermediates

Findings • 572/1048 (55%) response rate • 76% male • 66% paramedics

Findings • 572/1048 (55%) response rate • 76% male • 66% paramedics

 • 73% had treated a patient with a POLST • POLST, when present,

• 73% had treated a patient with a POLST • POLST, when present, changed treatment in 45% of patients

 • 75% thought POLST provided clear instructions about patient preferences • 93% thought

• 75% thought POLST provided clear instructions about patient preferences • 93% thought POLST useful in determining treatment when patient in cardiopulmonary arrest • 63% thought it useful in other circumstances

 • 25% reported some difficulty finding the form • 87% were filled out

• 25% reported some difficulty finding the form • 87% were filled out appropriately – 6% had conflicting orders – 5% unsigned – 2% incomplete

 • It was not followed in 37 (10%) cases – 17 changed by

• It was not followed in 37 (10%) cases – 17 changed by family or other care giver on scene – 9 changed by patient – 8 changed by physician/EMT/hospital

Case Study: When POLST Works

Case Study: When POLST Works

Where to keep the POLST • The front of the chart • In a

Where to keep the POLST • The front of the chart • In a red envelop on the fridge (but people do not like it)

 The Oregon POLST Registry For Emergency Medical Services, emergency departments and hospital acute

The Oregon POLST Registry For Emergency Medical Services, emergency departments and hospital acute care units

What is it? • Secure electronic Registry of POLST orders. • Located at the

What is it? • Secure electronic Registry of POLST orders. • Located at the Emergency Communication Center at OHSU and protected by the OHSU firewall • Allows health care professionals access to POLST orders if the original POLST form cannot be immediately located.

How do I access the POLST Registry? • Call the 24 hour POLST Registry

How do I access the POLST Registry? • Call the 24 hour POLST Registry EMS line – Say, “This is _______ agency/emergency department, with an immediate POLST form request” Provide as much as possible of the following patient information, to the Registry staff: • Full name • POLST Registry ID # • Date of Birth • Home address/residential • Gender care facility address • Last 4 SSN • City, County, or zip code

What information will be provided? • Section A and B orders, the date the

What information will be provided? • Section A and B orders, the date the form was signed, and the POLST Registry ID number. • THE STAFF ARE NOT MEDICAL PROVIDERS, AND CAN OFFER NO INTERPRETATION OF POLST ORDERS • Hospitals can be faxed the POLST form. • EMS: if you are transporting confirm your destination hospital and a copy can be sent

This is what the fax will look like

This is what the fax will look like

The Oregon POLST Registry Emergency Communication Center at OHSU 503 494 -7333 (MRH) 888

The Oregon POLST Registry Emergency Communication Center at OHSU 503 494 -7333 (MRH) 888 476 5787 (1 -888 4 -POLSTS) E-mail: [email protected] edu Website: http: //www. ohsu. edu/polst/programs/Oregon. POLSTRegistry. htm

POLST Information Center for Ethics in Health Care • 503 494 -3965 • Fax:

POLST Information Center for Ethics in Health Care • 503 494 -3965 • Fax: 503 494 -1260 • [email protected] edu • www. polst. org