- Slides: 52
THE PIPER MODEL - ‘IN ACTION’ [WORKSHOP] P I P E R Personalised approaches, strategies and Primary resources to assess and promote Mental Health National Strategy and Emotional Well-being for children and young people with SEN and/or disabilities The Importance Of Understanding And Responding To Emotions In The Classroom Dennis Piper Special Educational Needs Consultant | Social, Emotional And Mental Health Needs Associate Lecturer | Academic Tutor | Manchester Metropolitan University Doctoral Researcher | Manchester University One Education | SEND conference | 2018 © Crown Copyright 2005
What is the PIPER Model
The PIPER model means P ersonalised Interventions P romoting E motional R esilience. It is a ‘ 3 -step personalised intervention’ located in the field of Child Mental Health
Emotional Wellbeing | Profiling And Provision Mapping around Risk And Resilience | Using the PIPER Model as ‘Action Research’ 6 -Step EWB Action Research Model STEPS 1 AND 2: RISK AND RESILIENCE MODEL RISK AND RESILIENCE FRAMEWORK (MHF 1999) STAFF PROFILE CHILD / YOUNG PERSON USING R AND R FRAMEWORK STEPS 3 AND 4: ANXIETY-DRIVEN BEHAVIOURAL PROFILING STAFF LOOK AT TENSION MODEL STAFF DEVISE PERSONALISED RAMP FOR CHILD / YOUNG PERSON STEP 5: 3 -WAVE PROVISION MAPPING STEP 6: MONITORING AND EVALUATIVE PROCESS STAFF LOOK AT SETTINGS CURRICULUM INTERVENTIONS IMPLEMENTATIO N REVIEW EVALUATION WAVE 1: CLASS RISK AND RESILIENCE INTERACTIVE 4 -FIELD EWB MAP (PIPER, 2017) WAVE 2: GROUP WAVE 3: 1: 1 PERSONALISED IMPACT MEASURES: CHILD / YOUNG PERSON IMPACT MEASURES: STAFF/SCHOOL SYSTEMS CHANGE
The Action Research process is reflected in the new SEN/D Code of Practice (Df. E; Do. H, 2015) Targets achieved? Achieving independence? Improvement in rate of progress? Is the gap narrowing? Skills transference into the classroom/other areas? Pupil response to provision? Any necessary changes to support provision and future target/s? To ascertain a clear understanding of the child's needs. 4. Review 1. Assess Inclusive and personalised Quality First Teaching. Appropriate tracking / observational tools to convey progression and outcomes of personalised intervention/s. High level collaborative pedagogical discussions. Joint forum for all involved in delivery to reflect on actions and outcomes. Identify why and where the child is not making adequate progress, despite high quality teaching. 3. Do 2. Plan Make all staff aware of the pupil's needs. Personalised intervention/s. Personalised Target setting.
Using Risk and Resilience Profiling and Provision Mapping for Emotional Wellbeing as a basis for Research’ and the ‘Assess, plan, do, review’ process ‘Action Step 1: Planning - including problem and situation analysis 1. Risk and Resilience Profiling using Mental Health Framework (1999) | 4 -field interactive EWB Map (Piper, 2017) 2. Creating a Reducing Anxiety Management Plan (RAMP) 3. Creating a personalised 3 wave Provision Map Step 4: Reflecting - on the on-going process of planning, acting and observing Step 2: Action SENCo and staff evaluate the effectiveness of the RAMP and personalised 3 -wave Provision Map at review using a strong evidence base. Has the action plan outcomes reduced the number of pupil risk factors and increased the number of resilience factors? implementing the plan Step 3: Observing - Implement the RAMP and personalised 3 -wave Provision Map. monitoring and evaluating the action Use tally charts, diaries, pupil observation schedules, teacher feedback, pupil feedback. Action Research Cycle: Planning, Implementing, Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating for a Pupil with Mental Health/Emotional Wellbeing Needs.
‘Setting the scene’ - context, factors and influences In schools at times we may experience disruptive / inappropriate / abnormal pupil behaviour causing us to have feelings of negativity and/or extreme concern. There are many underlying factors that can influence behaviour: Ø Social Ø Emotional and Psychological Ø Biological Ø Environmental These can present significant barriers to teaching and learning. If you understand respond to these underlying factors it can help you develop positive relationships with these pupils. This in turn can make teaching them easier.
What are Mental Health problems? The UK context A wide range and degree of mental health problems might require special provision to be made. These could manifest as difficulties such as: q Problems of mood (anxiety or depression); q Problems of conduct (oppositional problems and more severe conduct problems including aggression); q Self-harming; q Substance abuse; q Eating disorders or physical symptoms that are medically unexplained. Some children and young people may have other recognised disorders such as: q Attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); q Attachment disorder; q Autism or pervasive developmental disorder; q An anxiety disorder, q A disruptive disorder …or, rarely, q Schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. [Source: SEN Code of Practice; Df. E Do. H, 2015, p. 64] UK © Crown copyright 2005
“It’s Everyone’s Responsibility!” “Anyone in contact with a child has an impact on that child’s mental health and psychological wellbeing. The challenge for all of us is to remember that, and to be able to respond if things start to go wrong”. Children and Young People in Mind final report of the CAMHS Review 2008 © Crown copyright 2005
What do we need in order to look at behaviour from an Emotional W ellbeing perspective? © Crown copyright 2005
Key Skills for Emotional Intelligence (EI) "Emotional Intelligence includes the ability to engage in sophisticated information processing about one's own and others' emotions and the ability to use this information as a guide to thinking and behaviour” John D. Mayer, Peter Salovey Self Awareness Social Skills Key Skills for EI Empathy Self. Regulation Internal Motivation
How Do I Know If I Am Emotionally Intelligent In My Work? QUESTION: WHAT IT MEANS: q Do I have self-knowledge? Do I know enough about myself? q Am I open? Can I share feelings/thoughts? q Am I warm? Have I a friendly/caring manner? q How accepting am I? Do I accept others and myself? q Do I show support? Do I advocate for the child? q Am I flexible? Can I creatively re-frame situations? q Do I appreciate children? Am I ‘child-centred’? q Am I empathetic? Can I identify feelings? q Do I show respect? Can I be unbiased? q Am I accountable? Do I allow ‘learning from mistakes’? q Do I set and move towards goals? Do I see the ‘Bigger picture’? © Crown copyright 2005
What is Empathy? “Empathy is without question an important ability. It allows us to tune into how someone else is feeling, or what they might be thinking. Empathy allows us to understand the intentions of others, predict their behaviour, and experience an emotion triggered by their emotion. In short, empathy allows us to interact effectively in the social world. It is also the “glue” of the social world, drawing us to help others and stopping us from hurting others. ” Simon Baron-Cohen (2004) Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry Cambridge University © Crown copyright 2005
Are you ‘Child-focused’ or ‘Child-centred’? Education Social Education Health Social Health Care Housing Care Housing ‘Child Focused’ ‘Child Centred ’ © Crown copyright 2005
RISK AND RESILIENCE: HOW IT AFFECTS MENTAL HEALTH AND EMOTIONAL WELLBEING Emotional Wellbeing M E N T A L Risk Factors Resilience Factors H E A L T H Resilience Factors © Crown copyright 2005
What does research evidence tell us? A central finding in the literature on psychosocial adversities is that some individuals are more resilient than others. There are children who, against all odds survive intact and develop into competent, confident and caring adults despite prolonged and negative experiences. An important key to promoting children’s mental health is, therefore, a greater understanding of those protective factors that enable these children to be resilient. (MHF, 1999, p. 9). Emotional Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Risk Factors DECREASE Wellbeing M E N T A L H E A L T H Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Resilience Factors INCREASE
Where are the risk and resilience factors located? There is a broad agreement that factors that can promote childhood resilience are located in the following domains. 1. The physical and emotional attributes of the 2. The child’s family; 3. The child’s school ; 4. The immediate environment in which the child lives. © Crown copyright 2005 child;
Step 1: Risk and Resilience Profiling
© Dennis Piper: ‘Emotional Well-Being: Profiling and Provision Mapping for Children and Young People Based On Risk and Resilience (Protective) Factors - A Process Model. ’ Community/Environmental Protective factors Family Protective factors Wider support networks Community/Environmental Risk factors Family Risk factors Inconsistent or unclear discipline Affection At least one good parentchild relationship Access to sport and leisure amenities Individual Protective factors Gender (female) Good communication skills Supervision High standard of living Authoritative discipline Affection Support for education Schools with strong academic and nonacademic opportunities Adapted: Mental Health Foundation 1999 Capacity to reflect Higher intelligence Religious faith Believing in control Humour Supportive parental relationship/absence of severe discord Good housing Parental conflict Individual Risk factors Hostile and rejecting relationships Difficult temperament Physical illness, especially if chronic and/or neurological Failure to adapt to a child’s changing needs Communication problems Academic failure Homelessness Physical, sexual and/or emotional abuse Learning difficulty or disability Specific developmental delay Low self-esteem Substance misuse Genetic influences Low IQ Death and loss, including loss of friendships Unemployment © Crown copyright 2005 Socioeconomic disadvantage Severe parental mental health problems Parental criminality or substance addiction Disaster Family breakdown Discrimination
From the previous 3 -field Mental Health framework (MHF, 1999) and as part of my doctoral research, I have developed an interactive 4 -field EWB Map (Piper, 2017). The new ‘field’ places a ‘spotlight’ on the ‘school setting’ as a domain in its own right; one that can influence / impact significantly on individual children and young people’s mental health / emotional wellbeing.
EWB | Pupil Profiling based on Risk and Resilience [Protective] Factors - using an interactive 4 -field EWB Map Community and Environment: Resilience [Protective] Factors School: Resilience [Protective] Factors Wider family or extended support networks [ ] Access to sport and leisure amenities [ ] Good overall standard of living [ ] Schools with strong academic and nonacademic opportunities [ ] Clear policies on behaviour and bullying [ ] Supportive parental relationship/absence of obvious disharmony [ ] ‘Open-door’ policy for children / parents/staff to raise problems [ ] At least one good parentchild relationship (or one supportive adult) [ ] An evidenced whole school approach to promoting good pupil mental health / emotional wellbeing [ ] Evidenced Affection [ ] Positive Supervision [ ] Positive, clear and consistent discipline [ ] A whole school approach to addressing and promoting positive staff mental health / emotional wellbeing [ ] Support for education [ ] Family: Resilience [Protective] Factors Individual: Resilience [Protective] Factors Being female (in younger children) [ ] Good communication skills/sociability [ ] Belief in self-control [ ] Humour [ ] A positive attitude [ ] Faith or spirituality [ ] Problem solving skills [ ] Experiences of success and achievement [ ] Secure attachment experience [ ] Capacity to reflect [ ] Higher (measured) IQ [ ] Positive Peer influences [ ] School: Risk Factors Radicalisation [ ] Parental criminality/ Family: substance addiction/ Risk Factors personality disorder [ ] Individual: Risk Factors Positive classroom management / interactions [ ] Good teacher-pupil relationships [ ] Good housing / accommodation facilities [ ] Radicalisation [ ] Family breakdown including adoption / in care [ ] Over- Sexualised behaviour [ ] Parental debt [ ] Low self-esteem [ ] Female Genital Mutilation [ ] Specific developmental delay [ ] Communication problems [ ] Genetic influences [ ] Low (measured) IQ [ ] Difficult temperament [ ] Physical illness, especially if chronic and/or neurological [ ] Radicalised behaviour [ ] Substance misuse [ ] Multigenerational Conflicted family [ ] Inconsistent or unclear discipline [ ] Hostile and rejecting relationships [ ] Failure to adapt to a child’s changing needs [ ] Physical, Sexual or Emotional Abuse [ ] Long-term unemployment [ ] Death and loss, including loss of friendships [ ] Prejudice and/or Discrimination [ ] Overt parental conflict including Domestic Violence [ ] Academic failure [ ] Severe parental mental health problems [ ] Poor classroom management / interactions [ ] Poor teacher-pupil relationships [ ] Unemployment [ ] Concerns about Sexual Exploitation [ ] Bullying [ ] Learning difficulty or disability [ ] Outgoing temperament as an infant [ ] Multi-generational Supportive family [ ] A sense of belonging [ ] Community and Environment: Risk Factors Lack of an evidenced whole school approach to promoting good pupil mental health / emotional wellbeing [ ] Lack of an evidenced whole school approach to promoting positive staff mental health / emotional wellbeing [ ] Breakdown in or lack of positive friendships [ ] A sense of isolation [ ] Deviant Peer influences [ ] Evidenced Community Conflict or breakdown in relations [ ] Social isolation or exclusion [ ] Homelessness [ ] Radicalisation [ ] Disaster [ ] Experience of Prejudice and / or Discrimination [ ] Female Genital Mutilation [ ] Negative Peer pressure [ ] Poverty [ ]
EWB | ‘Risk and Resilience (Protective) Factors’ Pupil Profiling SCHOOL: _____________________________ Pupil’s first name: ___________ M [ ] F [ ] Year: ____ Activity: Using the Risk and Protective Factors Interactive 4 -field EWB Map, please complete the proformas below. A) RESILIENCE ENHANCING (1) Identified ‘Protective’ (Resilience) Factor/s (use diagram): (2) Observable Characteristics and Behaviour/s within School and the Classroom e. g. on-task, interaction with peers/staff, social, interpersonal and communication skills: (3) Skills, Strategies, Ideas or Plans to acknowledge, reinforce and promote these strengths: B) RISK REDUCING (1) Identified ‘Risk’ Factor/s (use diagram): (2) Observable Characteristics and Behaviour/s within School and the Classroom e. g. on/off task, interaction with peers/staff, social, interpersonal and communication skills: (3) Skills, Strategies, Ideas or Plans required to address identified concern/s or ‘risk/s’:
Activity 1. Think of the pupil in question 2. Look at the risk and resilience factors proformas. 3. Complete with your colleagues using at least 3 pieces of evidence to support the factor(s) identified. 4. Agree the evidence base to build a R&R profile. 5. Where there is not 100% agreement on evidence place a question mark alongside the ‘potential’ factor identified. Do you find this EWB profiling method helpful? © Crown copyright 2005
Risk and Resilience Profile for Anna - a ‘worked’ example Identified Protective Factor(s) Identified Risk Factor(s) 1. Gender - female 1. Communication 2. Good communication 2. Low self esteem 3. Capacity to reflect 3. Academic failure 4. Affection 4. Genetic influences 5. Access to leisure 5. Difficult temperament 6. Schools with strong academic 6. and non-academic opportunities 7. 1. Becomes very cross, can’t Skill, Strategies, Ideas or Plans required to address identified concern(s) or risk(s) 1. Time with KK in the verbalise why/what’s happened morning/LM at lunchtime; lots of Will say. . . ‘I can’t do this’, ‘I reinforcement of what she can’t read’ do; giving her responsibility; Not made expected progress picking her out of the group; Inconsistent/unclear discipline academically – moved down a praising what she does Hostile and rejecting group relationships 8. Observable Characteristics and Behaviour(s) Failure to adapt to child’s changing needs 9. Emotional abuse 10. Severe parental mental health problems 11. Disadvantaged area 12. Discrimination 13. Unemployment 2. 3. 2. 4/10. Mum’s OCD 1. Brother – statement for BESD 2. Kicks, throws, pushes, scratches, bites, screams, punches, head- complete FA; 1: 1 support at lunchtime; 30 minutes outside, in for 15 3. Anna across playground 4. Mum – noticed in the morning before school 5. In morning – unable to come to school later – blames on her own OCD 6. distract her; take her out of the Mum – under table, count to 10, tells what has been said, drags Witnessed in the playground in the morning Remove Anna from a situation before she becomes distressed; butts 3. Extra time with KK/JWi/LM - to playground 4. Chill out room in the morning 5. Speak to Mum out of earshot of Anna.
Children and Young People Mental Health and Emotional Wellbeing Reflections… When creating a Risk and Resilience profile… What Key factors do you need to Consider?
Step 2: Tension Model and Reducing Anxiety Management Plan (RAMP)
© The [PIPER] “TENSION MODEL” - for recognising, predicting and responding appropriately to a pupil’s emotional levels and presenting (i. e. observable) behavioural difficulties. UP ATTACKING STATE Pupil Behaviour: Loss of self-control with a need to attack something or someone i. e. frenzied. Has a great deal of strength/energy to expend – very difficult to talk to/manage. UP DOWN UP Staff Response: AGGRESSIVE STATE Pupil Behaviour: Extremely tense, confrontational and irrational (severe physically challenging actions). To use non-verbal signals (non provocative body posture). Physical proximity to pupil is crucial i. e. safe distance if pupil ‘hits out’ (2 staff minimum present); to try and ‘let the fire burn out’ without increasing pupil tension; to encourage pupil to adopt slow breathing actions (speaking in a calm, clear voice); to move other pupils to a ‘safe’ place – quickly/calmly/orderly (2 staff to supervise); to increase language (verbal strategies) during ‘lulls’ and as the pupil calms to Agitated/Anxious states. Staff Response: AGITATED STATE Pupil Behaviour: Increasing tension and physically unsettled. Clearly challenging staff authority and/or control e. g. jumping on chair/throwing things/banging window/ shouting loudly. DOWN Staff Response: To prevent injury or harm to the person themselves; to prevent injury or harm to other people-appropriate physical restraint; to remove from premises with support – inter-agency meeting (follow up). THRESHOLD BETWEEN RATIONAL AND IRRATIONAL BEHAVIOUR To prevent other pupils being interfered with/provoked – move other pupils to a ‘safe’ place (if necessary) and in orderly fashion; to deploy 1 member of staff for observation/physical and emotional support; to deploy 1 member of staff for talking to pupil – “please do it for me” (personalise); to clearly remind pupil of rules/behavioural boundaries – calmly and clearly; to avoid being further provoked – remain calm. Think before saying/doing anything; to stand in a relaxed manner but not too near pupil – proximity to pupil is crucial!; to allow pupil to make a choice or face the consequences – ‘selfmanagement’; to allow pupil time to follow instructions, if possible – ‘time out’ facility available; to ensure that consequences can be enforced – are they pragmatic/relevant/realistic? ; to allow pupil to ‘save face’ – if they do it and swear the outcome has still been achieved (specific praise for ‘positives’ and ignore ‘negatives’ if possible. UP Staff Response: ANXIOUS STATE Pupil Behaviour: Beginning to feel uncomfortable and tense. Avoiding contact, fussing more than usual, sitting away form others and difficulty in concentration/remaining ‘on task’. DOWN UP Baseline Staff Response: CONTROLLED STATE Pupil Behaviour: Generally calm/compliant but can be ‘giddy’ or ‘boisterous at times. DOWN To reassure pupil that they can be supported - “we do care about you”; to suggest talking about problem - “we can try to make things better”; to tell pupil that you are aware they are unhappy (stay near if pupil doesn’t respond); to reassure pupil that you are available if they wish to talk – ‘library area’ available. © Crown copyright 2005 To harness, maintain and develop pupil’s positive attitude to staff/others/work; to give specific and general praise regularly (celebrate achievements) – ‘circle time’; to remind pupil (if behaving ‘silly) of rules/boundaries in a clear and calm manner.
© REDUCING ANXIETY MANAGEMENT PLAN | RAMP
LEVEL(5): ATTACKING / DISTRESSED STATE LEVEL (4): AGGRESSIVE / HIGHLY STRESSED STATE PUPIL BEHAVIOUR: LEVEL (2): ANXIOUS STATE PUPIL BEHAVIOUR: LEVEL (3): AGITATED STATE (Threshold between Rational / Irrational Behaviour) Reducing Anxiety Management Plan : School: ______ Pupil: _____ Year: ___ Date: _____ PUPIL SELF-CALMING STRATEGIES: STAFF STRATEGIES: PUPIL BEHAVIOUR: PUPIL SELF-CALMING STRATEGIES: STAFF STRATEGIES: Baseline LEVEL (1): CONTROLLED STATE PUPIL BEHAVIOUR: PUPIL SELF-CALMING STRATEGIES: STAFF STRATEGIES: Setting (Codes): (C) = Class (PL) = Playground (DT) = Dinner Time (TR) = Transport (A) = Assembly (PE/G) = Physical Education/Games (ST) = School Trip [public space] (QU) = Queueing [lining up]
Activity Collaboratively (with colleagues): 1. 2. 3. Look at the Reducing Anxiety Management Plan (RAMP) Plan for your chosen child/student in EACH context. do not forget to include the ‘child’s voice’ IS THIS TYPE OF PLAN HELPFUL? © Crown copyright 2005
A Reducing Anxiety Management Plan (RAMP) for Anna – a ‘worked’ example Level 5 - ATTACKING STATE PUPIL BEHAVIOUR STAFF STRATEGIES Deliberately kicks/throws Leave in chill out room on own (1 minute) Throws in direction of staff members Adult to go in when it is safe to do so Reassure Anna that you are not going to leave (repeat it several times – firmly say ‘I am not going to leave but you can’t throw something at me I will have to because it’s not safe’ Try to distract with a book or toy Level 4 - AGGRESSIVE STATE PUPIL BEHAVIOUR STAFF STRATEGIES Kicking/throwing chairs 2 adults to remove Anna from the environment to the chill out room Emptying/throwing boxes of toys State firmly that. . . ’you do not throw at me. . . you can throw things if you want to but you do not throw at Starts throwing toys near adults Goes under tables – kicks them repeatedly me. I will have to leave as I won’t be safe Give options – you can do this or this If adult attempts to leave she may hold onto legs – distract, I don’t mind you doing that but it’s hurting my back, I’ll sit down and you can hold them. . . I need the toilet, I need a drink of water - ALWAYS reassure that you will return Threshold (rational/irrational) Level 3 - AGITATED STATE Threshold (rational/irrational) PUPIL BEHAVIOUR STAFF STRATEGIES Runs out of playground/classroom Take Anna to the chill out room/library Takes coat off 1 adult to stay in the chill out room with Iris Kicks/pushes a chair (once or twice) Pushes a crate (once or twice) Goes and sits under a table Body Language/expression - cross face, pouts lips, folds arms Distract Anna - message or to do a job – walk down junior corridor, to staff room Level 2 - ANXIOUS STATE PUPIL BEHAVIOUR STAFF STRATEGIES Wriggly Heightened awareness Lacks in concentration Inform other members of staff Remind Anna of what to do if something happens Baseline Level 1 - CONTROLLED STATE Baseline PUPIL BEHAVIOUR STAFF STRATEGIES No evidence at this point in time
Children and Young People Mental Health and Emotional Wellbeing Reflections… When Looking At The tension model and creating a RAMP… What Key factors do you need to Consider?
Step 3 Provision Mapping
Provision Mapping for Social, Emotional and Mental Health – The 3 ‘waves’ model Wave 3 Wave 2 Wave 1 Additional highly personalised Interventions e. g. 1: 1 support Small-group interventions for children/students who need additional help in developing skills, mental health Self-help strategies and for their families Quality first teaching of social, emotional and behavioural skills to all children; an effective and positive ‘whole-school’ wellbeing ethos or ‘educational setting’; policies, good practice and ‘learning frameworks’ for promoting positive mental health / emotional wellbeing. © Crown copyright 2005
© 3 -WAVE PROVISION MAP SCHOOL : _____________________________________________________________ NAME: _____________________ YEAR: ______ REVIEW DATE: ________________ START DATE: __________ RISK ASSESSMENTS AND PREVENTATIVE MEASURES CURRICULUM. INTERVENTIONS WAVE    (SETTINGS/CURRICULUM/ INTERVENTIONS (REFER TO REDUCING ANXIETY MANAGEMENT PLAN) RISK FACTORS (HEALTH AND SAFETY) RESPONSE (PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES) REWARD (POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT) IMPACT SUCCESS CRITERIA (MEASURABLE OUTCOMES) Staff involved in completing Provision Map: ____________________________________________________________ Date Provision Map completed and agreed: ____________________________ © Crown copyright 2005 Head Teacher: _______________________
Activity 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Think of the pupil in question. Look at the 3 -Wave Provision Map (PM). Complete collaboratively with colleagues. The PM should be informed by the R&R profile and RAMP. The PM should be personalised - specific to the particular child’s identified R&R factors. There should be agreed monitoring ‘tools’ to record progression. There should be an agreed start and review date. Do you find this EWB P rovision Mapping helpful? © Crown copyright 2005
Anna | Provision Mapping: Wave 1 – Whole Class Situations (a worked example) SITUATION/ SETTING Wave 1 Whole Class/school situations PSRN/CLL Carpet Time/ Registration Continuous Provision RISK ASSESSMENT AND PREVENTATIVE MEASURES Risk Factors (Health and Safety) Response (Preventative Strategies) Reward (Positive Reinforcement) Success Criteria (Measurable Outcome) Verbal praise Thumbs up Stickers Opportunity to help/become the V. I. P I can stay participate in CT/Registration (at least 10 x p/wk. ) Verbal Praise Stickers Visit to the HT Visit site manager at end of the day I can play in my classroom without becoming aggressive (at least 10 x p/wk. ) Lots of verbal praise Stickers Visit to HT Visit to the site manager Using her as a sample of excellence to her peers I can help at tidy up time (at least 10 x p/wk. ) I can play out without becoming aggressive (at least 10 x p/wk. ) Verbal praise Stickers Visit to the HT Visit to the site manager Make fairies Allow her to demonstrate to her peers Verbal praise Stickers Praise Stickers I do not become agitated in the hall (80% of the time) Tidy-up Time Pre-anxiety Level Bored/inattentive Uninterested in topic being covered Become fidgety Anxiety Level Unstructured – doesn’t always get own way Level of tolerance for peers Inability to share Another child becoming injured – through her frustration Anxiety level Not having finished her work/game Other children saying ‘it is tidy up time’ Another child becoming injured through her frustration Dinner Time/ Play Time PE. Assembly/Singing Practice IMPACT Anxiety Level Weather – coat on/off Level of tolerance for peers Inability to share Another child becoming injured – This is an area of strength for her Another child becoming injured – through her frustration Pre-anxiety level Bored/Inattentive Pre-anxiety Level Fidgety Ask to go to toilet Ensure there is a visual stimulus If becoming distracted give a job to do, send to a TA to help etc. Allow her to move without asking if needed Sit her next to a good role model/friend Lots of positive reinforcement Provide suitable adult support if needed Distract – take out of the situation/classroom if is becoming more anxious Say HT/Site manager is looking forward to seeing her later when she has had a fabulous day Modelling play – adult to manage children around her so not too many if she is anxious Give a five minute warning Allow her to leave her unfinished work in a safe place Allow her a little time to start tidying up – adult is not to constantly remind her Ensure an adult is nearby to direct the children around her Do not direct her to tidy something – she will normally choose something herself Give positive feedback to other children for their hard work 1: 1 support during lunch time/ play time Have 1: 1 in classroom before tidy up time starts If becoming anxious distract – take her out of Allow her to choose inside with an adult if she wants – calmer/quieter there Ensure adult is supervising at all times Monitor level of anxiety – distract if needed To remain in the classroom and not go into assembly unless getting a certificate/class assembly with lots of visual stimulus Sit on end of row near adult Allow to go to the toilet when asks I participate in PE. (80% of the time)
Anna | Provision Mapping: Wave 2 - Group Situations (a worked example) Wave 2 Group Situations Phonics Tricky Words Library Guided Reading Group Work RISK ASSESSMENT AND PREVENTATIVE MEASURES Risk Factors Response (Health and Safety) (Preventative Strategies) Pre-anxiety Level Ensure there is a visual stimulus Bored/inattentive if not visual and If becoming distracted give a job to do, send to active session a TA to help etc. Tolerance of peers who try and Allow her to move without asking if needed answer for her Sit her next to a good role model/friend Become fidgety Lots of positive reinforcement Give her a job – collect the whiteboard etc. Pre-Anxiety Level If she is anxious do not take to do tricky words Level of tolerance for peers Possibly take on a 1: 1 basis dependent of level Finding the work difficult of anxiety Not being able to complete work/game Give her a warning/special place to put she was doing/playing work/game if unfinished Another child becoming injured – Say HT/Site manager is looking forward to through her frustration seeing her later when she has had a fabulous day If becoming restless praise for what she has done – encourage her to show other adults Pre-anxiety level If she is anxious do not take to the library Not having finished her work/game Possibly take on a 1: 1 basis dependent on level Not having her book of anxiety Another child becoming injured Give a five minute warning through her frustration Allow her to leave her unfinished work in a safe place Give a special job to do when get to the library/ on the way Anxiety Level If she is anxious do not take to force to Text is too difficult – becomes participate distressed Possibly take on a 1: 1 basis dependent on level Level of tolerance for peers of anxiety Inability to turn take Give a five minute warning Another child becoming injured Allow her to leave her unfinished work in a safe place Give a special job to do during the session Pre-anxiety level Ensure adult is supervising at all times Anxiety level during activity Monitor level of anxiety – distract if needed Thinking she is not able to complete Maths is an area of strength – allow her to do the work trickier work/model to other children Not having finished her game If completing a literacy activity possible Another child becoming injured complete on a 1: 1 basis, no more than 2: 1 as she will need constant reinforcement to stay on task Reward (Positive Reinforcement) Verbal praise Thumbs up Stickers Opportunity to help IMPACT Success Criteria (Measurable Outcome) I participate in phonics without becoming aggressive (at least 4 x p/wk. ) I am happy to do my tricky words (at least 4 x p/wk. ) Lots of verbal praise Stickers Visit to HT Visit to the site manager Using her as a sample of excellence to her peers I can change my library book in a group (at least 80% of the time) Verbal praise Stickers Visit to the HT Visit to the site manager I can participate in guided reading (at least 2 x p/week) Allow her to demonstrate to her peers Show her work to other adults Verbal praise Stickers I participate focused activities without becoming aggressive (80% of the time) Verbal Praise Stickers Visit to the HT Visit site manager at end of the day Opportunity to show other members of staff
Anna | Provision Mapping: Wave 3 - Individual Situations (a worked example) SITUATION/ RISK ASSESSMENT SETTING AND IMPACT PREVENTATIVE MEASURES Wave 3 Risk Factors Response Reward Success Criteria 1: 1 situations (Health and Safety) (Preventative Strategies) (Positive Reinforcement) (Measurable Outcome) 1: 1 Mrs K. am Pre-anxiety Level Allow her to choose where she wants to play/go Reassure her Sensitive to her if Mum has left Pre-Anxiety Level Finding the work difficult Not being able to complete work/game she was doing/playing Another child becoming injured – through her frustration If she is anxious do not take to read Give her a warning/special place to put work/game if unfinished Say HT/Site manager is looking forward to seeing her later when she has had a fabulous day If becoming restless praise for what she has done – encourage her to show other adults Pre-anxiety level Not having finished her work/game Another child becoming injured through her frustration Reading Verbal praise Thumbs up Stickers Opportunity to help Verbal Praise Stickers Visit to the HT Visit site manager at end of the day Opportunity to show other members of staff Lots of verbal praise Stickers Visit to HT Visit to the site manager I work with Mrs K. without becoming aggressive (at least 4 x p/week) I am happy to read my reading book with a member of staff (at least 4 x p/week) Emotions Programme If she is anxious do not take to do it Give a five minute warning Allow her to leave her unfinished work in a safe place I can complete my emotions programme (at least 80% of the time)
Anna - Tracking behaviour using the 'anxiety indicators’ and observable behaviours identified in the RAMP
Children and Young People Mental Health and Emotional Wellbeing Reflections… When Creating a 3 -wave provision map … What Key factors do you need to Consider?
A ‘Whole school Approach’ - features that seem influential in addressing Emotional Wellbeing Staff Development Peer work Parents Community involved and trained Climate, Ethos, Values, Attitudes Curriculum and Methods - CBT and social skillsintegrated Appropriate targeting
© The PIPER MODEL: A 6 -Step Guide STEP (6): Once the provision map is collectively agreed, understood and approved, the information should be disseminated to ALL staff to ensure consistency and to create an optimum whole school inclusive environment for the child to succeed/demonstrate evidence of progression. At review evidence should be collated and presented to ascertain whether strategies have been effective in producing successful and measurable outcomes. When evaluating, a priority question should be - has the provision map reduced (to any measurable degree) any risk factors and/or increased any number of resilience (protective) factors? STEP (5): Using all the collated information from Steps 1 -4 begin devising a 3 -wave ‘intervention’ provision map. Take into account risk factors (health and safety) at each wave ‘setting’, your response - preventative measures / strategies, positive reinforcement (reward) when the child engages or achieves and define success criteria i. e. measurable outcomes. You may define this mapping process in 3 ways: (1) Intervention, (2) Risk Assessments and Preventative Measures and (3) Impact. It is vital you agree on a Start and Review date. Head teacher approval/signature for implementing the provision map is also necessary. STEP (1) The core group discuss the ‘Risk and Resilience’ Model - agree an ‘operative’ definition for each characteristic / factor. A collective consensus is vital to 'benchmarking’ at this First stage of provision mapping for Emotional Wellbeing. STEP (2): Using the model - identify the child in question and begin profiling him/her on the basis of risk or resilience factors. Underpin these judgements with a strong evidence base i. e. observable behaviours in and/out of class or school. STEP (3): STEP (4): Using the ‘Tension’ Model as a ‘baseline measure’ i. e. reference point, create your own ‘operational’ model for the child - taking into account his/her behaviours at each level and your responses. This should create a ‘tension’ profile with which to begin devising a full risk assessment; this based on recognition of a combination of risk and resilience (protective) factors and the levels of tension or stress that may impact on the child’s emotional wellbeing and, in turn manifest itself in a variety of presenting behaviours within each of the 5 ‘tension’ levels or ‘states’. Read and discuss all aspects of the ‘Tension’ Model. Look carefully at pupil behaviours and teacher responses at each level. Notice that the pupil can move between levels (or states); identify the ‘threshold between rational and irrational behaviours’ i. e. Agitated State. Think carefully about what occurs within each level or ‘state of tension’ e. g. ‘Controlled’ or ‘Anxious’ and begin to ‘contextualise’ the information in preparation for Step 4.
W Thank You! © Crown copyright 2005
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