The Phonics of Science Understanding the Scientific Method

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The Phonics of Science Understanding the Scientific Method Copyright 2010

The Phonics of Science Understanding the Scientific Method Copyright 2010

Scientists People who ask questions l Observe l Identify a problem l Try to

Scientists People who ask questions l Observe l Identify a problem l Try to solve the problem Copyright 2010

Scientific Method A Structured Way to Answer a Question Specific Steps Scientific Vocabulary Copyright

Scientific Method A Structured Way to Answer a Question Specific Steps Scientific Vocabulary Copyright 2010

Seven Steps of the Scientific Method Step 1: Identify the Problem Step 2: Research

Seven Steps of the Scientific Method Step 1: Identify the Problem Step 2: Research the Problem Step 3: Form a Hypothesis (Educated Guess) Step 4: Test Hypothesis with Experiment Copyright 2010

Seven Steps of the Scientific Method Step 5: Collect and Record Data Step 6:

Seven Steps of the Scientific Method Step 5: Collect and Record Data Step 6: Form Conclusions Step 7: Communicate Results Copyright 2010

Step One: Identify the Problem Science is about why, or how things happen. What

Step One: Identify the Problem Science is about why, or how things happen. What are you curious about? Ask any question. Copyright 2010

Identify a Problem Will raisins sink or float when placed in fizzy (carbonated) water?

Identify a Problem Will raisins sink or float when placed in fizzy (carbonated) water? Copyright 2010

Step Two: Research the Problem Gather Information about your question Use the internet Go

Step Two: Research the Problem Gather Information about your question Use the internet Go to the library Ask friends, teachers Copyright 2010

Research the Problem Why is carbonated water fizzy? Are raisins denser than carbonated water?

Research the Problem Why is carbonated water fizzy? Are raisins denser than carbonated water? Is there anything unique about raisins compared to grapes? Copyright 2010

Step Three: Form a Hypothesis (Theory) A hypothesis is a theory or an educated

Step Three: Form a Hypothesis (Theory) A hypothesis is a theory or an educated guess about why or how something occurs. A hypothesis must contain the words IF and THEN. “If I study for a test, then I will get an A. ” Copyright 2010

Form a Hypothesis If I place raisins in fizzy (carbonated) water, then they will

Form a Hypothesis If I place raisins in fizzy (carbonated) water, then they will rise to the top. Copyright 2010

Step Four: Test your Hypothesis In order to figure out if your hypothesis is

Step Four: Test your Hypothesis In order to figure out if your hypothesis is correct, you need to set up an experiment. An experiment is a structured test designed to answer your question. An experiment must be “structured” so that other scientists can follow the same steps, perform the exact same experiment(s) and evaluate the results. Copyright 2010

Test Your Hypothesis For this experiment, you will need: – A clear plastic cup

Test Your Hypothesis For this experiment, you will need: – A clear plastic cup filled with fizzy (carbonated) water – A clear plastic cup filled with tap water – Several raisins (fresh are best) Copyright 2010

Experiments have Variables l The independent variable is what the scientist changes in the

Experiments have Variables l The independent variable is what the scientist changes in the experiment. – Carbonated Water versus Tap Water l The dependent variable is what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment. – How many raisins rise to the top in each type of water? Copyright 2010

Test Your Hypothesis Drop 6 raisins into the tap water. Watch the raisins for

Test Your Hypothesis Drop 6 raisins into the tap water. Watch the raisins for a few seconds. Observe what happens. Drop 6 raisins into the fizzy (carbonated) water. Watch the raisins for a few seconds. Observe what happens. Copyright 2010

Step Five: Collect and Record Data After setting up the experiment, it is critical

Step Five: Collect and Record Data After setting up the experiment, it is critical to carefully record the results. Inaccurate measurements lead to improper conclusions. Copyright 2010

Collect and Record Data What happened to the raisins in tap water? What happened

Collect and Record Data What happened to the raisins in tap water? What happened to the raisins in carbonated water? Did you observe anything else? Write it down! Copyright 2010

Step Six: Form Conclusions You may find your hypothesis was correct or you may

Step Six: Form Conclusions You may find your hypothesis was correct or you may find it was incorrect. You may also find something unexpected. Try to explain what happened. Copyright 2010

Step Seven: Communicate Results Communication of your results helps other people understand your work.

Step Seven: Communicate Results Communication of your results helps other people understand your work. This may be done in the form of a paper, a presentation or a video Copyright 2010

Copyright 2010

Copyright 2010

Copyright 2010

Copyright 2010

Scientific Method Vocabulary Independent Variable - Factor in an experiment that you change on

Scientific Method Vocabulary Independent Variable - Factor in an experiment that you change on purpose. (You can only test one at a time!) Dependent Variable - Factor in an experiment that is measured. Constants - Factors in an experiment that stay the same. In our experiment, constants were the plastic cup and raisins. Copyright 2010

Scientific Method Vocabulary Observations - Information (data) gathered about an experiment. Also known as

Scientific Method Vocabulary Observations - Information (data) gathered about an experiment. Also known as “results”. Use all of your senses! Analysis - Evaluation of the observations. Why did you find the results? Repeated Trials - Conducting your experimental tests more than once to reduce the effects of chance errors. Copyright 2010

Oak Knoll Science Fair l Choose your own experiment and follow the Scientific Method

Oak Knoll Science Fair l Choose your own experiment and follow the Scientific Method l Held in the new Multi! l Sign up at www. Oak. Knoll. Science. com Copyright 2010