- Slides: 10
THE PERSIAN WARS
While Greek city-states were flourishing in the 500 B. C’s. , a monster was approaching from the east. The Persian Empire was the largest empire by geographical extent during ancient times. At their height, the Persian Empire controlled roughly 45% of the world’s population. Tiny Greece was constantly threatened by the Persia’s growing empire, which now had its sight set on the Greek homeland.
WARS DON’T JUST START…THERE ALWAYS EVENTS THAT LEAD TO THE OUTBREAK OF WAR. In 545 B. C. , the Persians acquired land near the Ionian coast. Greek city-states would not risk sending armed forces to aid the Greek territories in the area. Sparta sent messengers to talk to the Persian Emperor, Cyrus. His response; “Who are the Spartans. ”
In 514 B. C. , the Persian Empire advanced west and conquered areas in Thrace and Macedonia. This was alarming to the Greek city-states as now Persian forces were at the doorstep of Greece. In 499 B. C. , the crisis began to spiral out of control. • Greek territories on the Ionian coast began to revolt against Persian rule. • Athens sent military aid to help their fellow Greeks. • The Persians put down the rebellion. • Athens was now a main target for the enraged Persians.
In 490 B. C. , at the advice of the expelled Athenian leader, Hippias, who was working with the Persians, the new emperor Darius decided it was time to launch the Persians offensive towards the Greek homeland. A Persian fleet of 600 ships left the Ionian coast and set out across the Aegean sea. They set up camp at Marathon Bay, a mere 25 miles away from Athens. What will happen next will go down as one of ancient history’s most important battles. http: //safeshare. tv/w/c. LKAi. Xzg. EM
AFTER MARATHON • Defeated Emperor Darius I and his military forces sail back to Persia. Their intent is to now launch a massive force against the Greeks to avenge their loss at Marathon. • Due to failing health, Darius I dies in 486 B. C. His son, Xerxes, takes the thrown as Emperor of Persia. • Xerxes’ goal is to avenge his father’s defeat and to expand the Persian Empire. • Xerxes spent four years planning his attack, building the fleet, and assembling troops. • When news of his massive army spread across Greece, weaker city-states submitted immediately to Persian rule, fearing all out annihilation. • Xerxes had assembled the largest army ever seen.
PAN-Hellenic Congress • • • This threat of invasion brought together Greek city-states that would not submit. They met at Corinth in 481 B. C. , where the plan was ultimately made to abandon territories in northern Greece. The Greeks debated and considered retreating down to Corinth and abandoning Athens. Finally a plan was devised to send a military force to defend a pass at Thermopylae. The Greeks then ran into a problem. At this time the Spartans were within a religious festival, and the Olympics were beginning, meaning that all Greeks had to lay down arms.
THE DECISION • Sparta would send a military force of 300 men led by King Leonidas. • Other Greek city-states contributed troops leading to a military force of nearly 7, 000 men.
480 B. C. Xerxes forces advance and meet the Greek forces at an area known as the “Hot Gates”. The pass at Thermopylae. http: //safeshare. tv/w/f. SAy. KFkq. QX
After Thermopylae, Xerxes forces marched on and destroyed the Greek city-state of Athens. When Xerxes forces arrived however, the found the city to be abandoned. The Persian forces eventually met Athenian and other Greek forces in a naval battle at Salamis. THE GREEK VICTORY AT SALAMIS ENDED ALL REALISTIC CHANCES FOR A PERSIAN VICTORY. http: //safeshare. tv/v/EMb. ZQjf. XUi 4