The Persian Wars Wars between Greeks and Persians

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The Persian Wars • Wars between Greeks and Persians in 5 th century BC

The Persian Wars • Wars between Greeks and Persians in 5 th century BC • Roughly from 492 – 448 BC • Two main invasions of Greece by Achaemenid kings of Persia • Herodotus – primary historian

Map pf Persian Empire

Map pf Persian Empire

Battle of Marathon • Ionian revolt and other battles • 490 BC - Darius

Battle of Marathon • Ionian revolt and other battles • 490 BC - Darius I “The Great” sent about 25, 000 men to plains of Marathon • Darius preceded by Cyrus the Great and Cambyses • 10, 000 Athenians and Plataeans under Callinachus and Miltiades • First victory for Greeks

Battle at Thermopylae • • 480 BC Xerxes – King of Persia, son of

Battle at Thermopylae • • 480 BC Xerxes – King of Persia, son of Darius I 70, 000 Persians bridged the Hellespont 10, 000 “Immortals” Themistocles led navy at Athens and Sparta form alliance Decide to defend at Thermopylae Leonidas I and 300 Spartans and 1000 Boetians

Map of Thermopylae invasion

Map of Thermopylae invasion

Battle of Salamis, also 480 BC • • Athens evacuated after Thermopylae Athens burned

Battle of Salamis, also 480 BC • • Athens evacuated after Thermopylae Athens burned Navy waiting around island Salamis Themistocles’ ruse Confined waters around Salamis Egyptians, Phoenecians, Ionian Greeks 40 Greek ships lost, 200 Persian ships lost Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus

Map of Battle of Salamis

Map of Battle of Salamis

Battle of Plataea, 479 BC • • Xerxes I had left a land army

Battle of Plataea, 479 BC • • Xerxes I had left a land army under Mardonius Spartans and Athenians rode up Met at isthmus of Corinth Mardonius fled

The Delian League, 478 BC • Ionian city-states joined for mutual protection • Treasuary

The Delian League, 478 BC • Ionian city-states joined for mutual protection • Treasuary on island of Delos, Aristides leads Athens • Athens in charge due to naval supremacy • Pericles leads Athens during Golden Age • Parthenon, Long Walls built • Sparta captures Athens in 404 BC

Peloponnesian Wars Begins in 431 BC between Athens and Sparta 429 BC – Pericles

Peloponnesian Wars Begins in 431 BC between Athens and Sparta 429 BC – Pericles dies of plague Three stage war Most of Delian League sided with Sparta 404 BC – Sparta wins war with defeat of Athenian navy at Aegospotami by Lysander with help from Persia • Lysander installs 30 rulers at Athens, later known as the “ 30 Tyrants” • • •

The Thirty Tyrants • Spartan hegemony • Long Walls destroyed • Athenian oligarchy appointed

The Thirty Tyrants • Spartan hegemony • Long Walls destroyed • Athenian oligarchy appointed by Sparta led by Critias • Leading democrats exiled • Council of 500 were the judiciary • Only 3000 Athenian had citizenship • Many sentenced to hemlock

End of Thirty Tyrants • • Other city-states helped exiled democrats Retook Piraeus by

End of Thirty Tyrants • • Other city-states helped exiled democrats Retook Piraeus by force Sparta did not come to help Democracy restored in 403 BC

Rise of Macedonia • Philip II

Rise of Macedonia • Philip II