- Slides: 34
The Persian Wars Maps and Pictures
Cyrus conquers Lydia • King Cyrus gains control over the Ionian Greek poleis when he conquers Lydia in 547 B. C.
Persian Rule • How did the Persians rule the cities? – They appointed local aristocrats as tyrants under the supervision of the Persian satraps. • When was the Ionian revolt and what was the result? – 499 -494 BC – The Persians squashed the revolt.
Persian Empire 490 B. C.
Darius invades Greece • Why did King Darius I attack Athens? – To punish it for sending a [small] fleet to assist the Ionian rebels. • What was the result of his invasion (what, where, when, by whom)? – He was defeated at Marathon in 490 BC by the Athenian hoplites under Miltiades. • What was Sparta’s role in the Ionian revolt and the battle of Marathon? – None.
Persian War Events
Miltiades Athenian victor at Marathon
The Greek Phalanx
Persian Warrior Dariac
The Plain of Marathon Today
The Battle of Marathon
Burial Mound at Marathon
Xerxes Invades Greece • How and when did Xerxes respond to his father’s defeat? – He attacked Greece in 480 BC. • Why did he take this action? – He believed it was necessary to subjugate the free Greeks of the Greek mainland in order to secure his control over western Asia Minor. • How did his invasion route differ from Darius’ route? – Darius’ army sailed directly across the Aegean Sea while Xerxes led his army along the coast with the fleet sailing along side it to provision it.
Xerxes’ Invasion Route
Xerxes’ Canal at Athos
Thermopylae • What happened at Thermopylae and when? – In 480 BC the Spartan king Leonidas sacrificed himself and 300 of his men to delay the Persians. Though they were all killed, their valiant effort inspired the Greeks. • What happened to Athens after Thermopylae? – The Athenians evacuated their city and took refuge on the island of Salamis. Xerxes destroyed Athens.
King Leonidas (Spartan king at Thermopylae)
The Battle of Thermopylae
Thermopylae – the Anopaea
Persian Arrowheads from Thermopylae
The Spartans’ Last Stand
Plaque Memorializing the Spartan’s Last Stand at Thermopylae ‘Go tell the Spartans, stranger passing by, that here, obedient to their laws, we lie. ’ - Poet Simonides (c. 556 -469 BC)
Themistocles Athenian victor at Salamis • What was Themistocles’ advice and how was his plan funded? – He advised the Athenians to build a large navy with the silver discovered at Laurium in southern Attica. • What happened at Salamis? – The Athenians and their allies defeated the Persian fleet in the bay of Salamis.
The Battle of Salamis
Air View of Salamis Today
Pausanius Spartan victor at Plataea • What happened at Plataea and when? – In 479 BC the Greeks, under Spartan leadership, defeated the Persian army. • What subsequent actions did Athens take after the defeat of the Persians? – The Athenian fleet liberated the Greek cities along the coast of Asia Minor.
The Battle of Plataea
The legacy of the Persian wars • The battles inspired the Greeks for many years. • In Europe, they later came to represent the triumph of free Greek states (western freedom) over Asia (eastern despotism). • This saved Greek culture, the source of Western civilization.
That’s all folks