The Persian Empire c 550 330 BCE World

  • Slides: 20
Download presentation
The Persian Empire c. 550 – 330 BCE World History I

The Persian Empire c. 550 – 330 BCE World History I

Main Ideas • Geography – Persia’s location between Mesopotamia and India was a bridge

Main Ideas • Geography – Persia’s location between Mesopotamia and India was a bridge between eastern and western Asia. • Government – Cyrus used a policy of toleration to control the Persian Empire. • Government – To better govern, Persia divided its lands into smaller units and developed an imperial bureaucracy. • Religion – Persia practiced Zoroastrianism

Essential Question: What was the land of the Persians like?

Essential Question: What was the land of the Persians like?

Mountains, Deserts, and a Plateau • The lands of the Medes included Persians in

Mountains, Deserts, and a Plateau • The lands of the Medes included Persians in modern-day Iran • Mountain ranges isolated Persia from the rest of the Fertile Crescent – Ranges are Zagros, Caucasus, Hindu Kush • Most people lived on a high plateau in the middle of the region, or in valleys • Iron, copper, semiprecious gems found in the land

Map of the Persian Empire

Map of the Persian Empire

Persians Occupy the Land • Medes lands often invaded by Central Asian nomads –

Persians Occupy the Land • Medes lands often invaded by Central Asian nomads – Nomads’ customs mixed with other societies living in the area • Persians entered into region, and created tiny kingdoms around 1000 BCE – Traded horses and minerals with eastern and western Asia • Persian kingdoms grew in power and threatened Medes’ control of the land

Cyrus Founds the Persian Empire Essential Question: What was the rule of Cyrus like?

Cyrus Founds the Persian Empire Essential Question: What was the rule of Cyrus like?

Fearless Military Leader • Medes ruled Persia until Persian king Cyrus the Great took

Fearless Military Leader • Medes ruled Persia until Persian king Cyrus the Great took control • Cyrus wanted to conquer and unite the surrounding lands as one empire – Quickly conquered Anatolia, or Asia Minor, within modern-day Turkey – Conquered the Fertile Crescent between 550 and 539 BCE

A Wise Emperor • Cyrus controlled lands of different peoples with a policy of

A Wise Emperor • Cyrus controlled lands of different peoples with a policy of toleration – Toleration: allowing people to keep their customs and beliefs – Conquered people kept their own religions, languages, and paid tribute • Policies made friends of conquered peoples, such as the Hebrews – Freed Hebrews and allowed them to rebuild temple and Jerusalem – Fewer revolts and people lived in peace

Review Question: Why can Cyrus be considered a wise emperor?

Review Question: Why can Cyrus be considered a wise emperor?

Darius Expands the Empire Essential Question: How did Darius control his empire?

Darius Expands the Empire Essential Question: How did Darius control his empire?

Darius Extends Persian Control • After Cyrus’s death, weaker ruler faced rebellions • Darius

Darius Extends Persian Control • After Cyrus’s death, weaker ruler faced rebellions • Darius I followed weak ruler, and put down the revolts • Darius conquered lands as far east as India – Persian Empire grew to 2800 miles from east to west

Political Organization • Darius divided the large empire into 20 provinces – Provinces: areas

Political Organization • Darius divided the large empire into 20 provinces – Provinces: areas of land similar to states, each with a local government – Set up satraps: governors who ran provinces and collected taxes – Appointed military commanders for each satrap – Spies called “king’s eyes and ears” helped Darius control satraps – Had extensive imperial bureaucracy

Uniting the Empire • Darius started the use of the Royal Road for government

Uniting the Empire • Darius started the use of the Royal Road for government purposes – Royal messages sent by relay of horseback messengers – Stretched from Sardis to Susa – Moved troops, mail, and promoted trade • Darius set up law code based on Hammurabi’s and used minted coins

Enemies of Persia • Darius died in 486 BCE before attacking Egyptian rebels •

Enemies of Persia • Darius died in 486 BCE before attacking Egyptian rebels • Followed by Xerxes who had to deal with Egypt and Greece – Xerxes was defeated by the Greeks in the Persian Wars in 480 BCE – Led to the decline of the empire • The Persian Empire fell when defeated by Alexander the Great under Darius III in 330 BCE

Review Question: Why did Darius divide the empire?

Review Question: Why did Darius divide the empire?

Zoroastrianism • Official religion of Persia • Based on the teaching of the prophet,

Zoroastrianism • Official religion of Persia • Based on the teaching of the prophet, Zoroaster • Monotheistic - one universal and inspiring God, Ahura Mazda • Believe in that there are two opposing forces in the universe • Belief in the idea of free will • “I praise aloud the thought well thought, the word well spoken, and the deed well done”

Lesson Summary • Tiny Persian kingdoms succeed due to trade • Cyrus the Great

Lesson Summary • Tiny Persian kingdoms succeed due to trade • Cyrus the Great ruled the Persian Empire with a policy of toleration • Darius formed provinces and appointed satraps to improve government • Zoroastrianism was the official religion of Persia

Why it matters now… The Persians showed that lands ruled with policies of toleration

Why it matters now… The Persians showed that lands ruled with policies of toleration could be stable and peaceful.