- Slides: 26
The Persian Empire and Persian Wars Persia vs. Greece
The Extent of the Persian Empire
The Religions of Persia • Zoroastrianism – Zoroaster, a Persian prophet – Struggle between evil and good, all are involved – Monotheistic: Ahura Mazda – Popular amongst Roman military • Judaism
Remember Cyrus? • Developed a vast Persian Empire • First emperor of Persia • Conquered the Ionian Greeks
Cyrus’ Legacies • Religious Tolerance – Cyrus honored local religious customs – Welcomed Jews to return to Jerusalem • Civility – Armies did not loot conquests – Kind toward conquered peoples
After Cyrus… • Darius seizes throne in 522 BCE –Crushed revolts –Expands empire into Greece, farther into Egypt, farther north into central Europe
Key Player: Darius • Under Darius – Ionian Greeks rebelled against Persia to gain independence • Athens helped the Ionian Greeks by sending aid • Persia stopped the Ionian rebels and wanted revenge on Athens for interfering with their personal business
Ionians lived here →
• As we read the selection, “The Persian Wars”, think about the causes of the wars, the important leaders and battles, and the effects of the wars. You’ll be creating a comic strip of them afterwards!
The First Persian War: 491 -490 BCE
Killing the messenger
Pheidippides running from Marathon
The Second Persian War 480 -479 BCE
King Leonidas of Sparta at the battle of Thermopylae
• Thermopylae / Salamis Thermopylae – Key land battle fought between the Greeks and Persians during the 2 nd Persian invasion of Greece in 480 B. C. At a narrow mountain pass, 7, 000 Greeks, including 300 Spartans, blocked the Persian army led by Xerxes. The Greeks stopped the Persian advance for 3 days. Only a traitor’s informing the Persians about a secret path around the pass ended their brave stand. Fearing defeat, the Spartans held the Persians back while the other Greek forces retreated. The Spartans’ valiant sacrifice – all were killed – made a great impression on all Greeks. • Salamis – Decisive Naval battle of the 2 nd Persian invasion of Greece. Themistocles, an Athenian leader, convinced the Athenians to abandon their city and fight at sea near the island of Salamis, a few miles southwest. After setting fire to Athens, Xerxes sent his warships to block both ends of the channel. However, the channel was very narrow, and the Persian ships had difficulty turning. Smaller Greek ships armed with battering rams attacked, puncturing the hulls of many Persian warships, destroying a third of the Persian fleet. C. 5, S. 2, Q. 3: Why were the Spartan soldiers willing to sacrifice themselves at Thermopylae?
Battle of Salamis
Battle of Plataea
The Aftermath: Effects of the War • Both Athens and Sparta claim credit for victory over Persia = led to problems • Sparta was still very weak after Thermopylae • Athens emerges as the most powerful citystate (bully) • Athens creates the Delian League (alliance with other city states to protect themselves if Persia ever returns) • Athens rebuilds their city-state better than ever, and they experience a GOLDEN AGE.
Last Stand of the 300 • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=1 Q 8 MF 6 I 9 Tw 4 – Start at 1: 10