The Outside Interests of the Cultural Elite Dave

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The Outside Interests of the Cultural Elite Dave Griffiths University Of Manchester/CRESC

The Outside Interests of the Cultural Elite Dave Griffiths University Of Manchester/CRESC

Elite studies n n n History of the social elite largely history of their

Elite studies n n n History of the social elite largely history of their financial structures Elite controls more than economic climate Similar groups sitting in all top public positions Cultural positions are hives of elite activity Influence of cultural producers places them at centre of bourgeois power

Types of capital n n Social Capital – associations and networks with individuals and

Types of capital n n Social Capital – associations and networks with individuals and institutions Cultural Capital – knowledge of cultural practices and norms Economic Capital – ownership of cash, property or other economical position Symbolic Capital – reputation, skills and expertise respected by others

Cultural capital n n n Different capitals unlock different doors Cultural capital is difficult

Cultural capital n n n Different capitals unlock different doors Cultural capital is difficult to attain US emerging elites buy positions on cultural boards to gain cultural capital (Ostrower: 1995) n In the UK, cultural boards are public boards, so acceptance cannot be bought

Dataset n n n Department of Media, Culture and Sport (DCMS) executive quangos 45

Dataset n n n Department of Media, Culture and Sport (DCMS) executive quangos 45 agencies employing 15, 000 individuals and spending £ 1. 2 billion a year (2005/06) Address all forms of UK culture from museums and galleries, regional cultural agencies, public access to literature and music, sports, films, architecture and heritage – even drinking and gambling

Museums (London based) British Library; British Museum; Geffrye Museum; Horniman Museum; Imperial War Museum;

Museums (London based) British Library; British Museum; Geffrye Museum; Horniman Museum; Imperial War Museum; Museum of London; National Gallery London; National Maritime Museum; National Museum of Science and Industry; National Portrait Gallery; Natural History Museum; Sir John Soane’s Museum; Tate; Victoria and Albert Museum; Wallace Collection National boards Alcohol Education and Research Council; Arts Council England; Big Lottery Fund; Churches Conservation Trust; Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment; English Heritage; Football Licensing Authority; Gambling Commission; Heritage Lottery Fund; Horseracing Betting Levy Board; Museums, Libraries and Archives Commission; National Endowment of Science, Technology and the Arts; National Lottery Commission; Olympic Lottery Distributor; Public Lending Right; Sport England; UK Film Council; UK Sport; Visit. Britain Regional bodies Culture East Midlands; Culture North East; Culture North West; Culture South East; Culture South West; Culture West Midlands; Living East; Museum of Science and Industry Manchester; National Museums Liverpool; Royal Armouries; Yorkshire Culture

Sample n n 767 individuals 63% male, average 58 Over 11, 000 pieces of

Sample n n 767 individuals 63% male, average 58 Over 11, 000 pieces of information Collected from April 2006 to January 2007 Press releases, websites, annual reports, registers of members’ interests, Who’s Who, Debrett’s People of Today …

DCMS network

DCMS network

Charities network

Charities network

Private member clubs

Private member clubs

Quango directorships

Quango directorships

Embeddedness values Closeness Centrality (how many steps a board is from all others) multiplied

Embeddedness values Closeness Centrality (how many steps a board is from all others) multiplied by Betweenness Centrality (how many other shortest paths pass through it) Produces an embeddedness value of between 0 and 1. These values have been averaged out for each type of quango, and multiplied by 1, 000 for display purposes. Outliers, or those with no betweenness, have a value of 0.

Average London UK-wide Regional Quango advisor 19. 03 12. 28 32. 96 5. 18

Average London UK-wide Regional Quango advisor 19. 03 12. 28 32. 96 5. 18 Educational links 11. 34 15. 85 10. 93 9. 61 School attended 10. 00 15. 77 6. 86 1. 22 Educational boards 9. 82 13. 37 10. 45 1. 96 Previous quangos 8. 77 11. 53 10. 96 1. 06 Honorary degrees 8. 60 20. 26 7. 37 2. 54 University attended 8. 10 11. 76 6. 21 5. 13 Private member clubs 7. 29 15. 97 3. 88 1. 39 Charities 7. 29 10. 21 8. 04 1. 03 Quangos 4. 91 9. 38 3. 67 1. 05 Employer 4. 59 6. 60 3. 23 5. 27 DCMS Network 3. 23 6. 60 3. 23 5. 27 Shareholdings 3. 06 3. 40 3. 99 0. 00 Affiliations to professional bodies 3. 02 4. 15 2. 77 1. 20 Social organisations 2. 65 4. 61 4. 03 0. 47 Boards of professional bodies 2. 36 4. 00 0. 11 0. 32 Corporate advisor 0. 13 0. 20 0. 07 0. 25 Editorial boards 0. 07 0. 11 0. 08 0. 00 Visiting professorships 0. 05 0. 00 0. 23 Directorships 0. 01 0. 02 0. 01 0. 00

Average London UK-wide Regional Quango advisor 19. 03 12. 28 32. 96 5. 18

Average London UK-wide Regional Quango advisor 19. 03 12. 28 32. 96 5. 18 Educational links 11. 34 15. 85 10. 93 9. 61 School attended 10. 00 15. 77 6. 86 1. 22 Educational boards 9. 82 13. 37 10. 45 1. 96 Previous quangos 8. 77 11. 53 10. 96 1. 06 Honorary degrees 8. 60 20. 26 7. 37 2. 54 University attended 8. 10 11. 76 6. 21 5. 13 Private member clubs 7. 29 15. 97 3. 88 1. 39 Charities 7. 29 10. 21 8. 04 1. 03 Quangos 4. 91 9. 38 3. 67 1. 05 Employer 4. 59 6. 60 3. 23 5. 27

Average London UK-wide Regional Quango advisor 19. 03 12. 28 32. 96 5. 18

Average London UK-wide Regional Quango advisor 19. 03 12. 28 32. 96 5. 18 Educational links 11. 34 15. 85 10. 93 9. 61 School attended 10. 00 15. 77 6. 86 1. 22 Educational boards 9. 82 13. 37 10. 45 1. 96 Previous quangos 8. 77 11. 53 10. 96 1. 06 Honorary degrees 8. 60 20. 26 7. 37 2. 54 University attended 8. 10 11. 76 6. 21 5. 13 Private member clubs 7. 29 15. 97 3. 88 1. 39 Charities 7. 29 10. 21 8. 04 1. 03 Quangos 4. 91 9. 38 3. 67 1. 05 Employer 4. 59 6. 60 3. 23 5. 27

Organisational differences n n n Regional organisations utilise social capital to generate cultural capital

Organisational differences n n n Regional organisations utilise social capital to generate cultural capital National organisations utilise cultural capital to generate social capital London museums utilise cultural capital to generate social and cultural capital

Culture West Midlands’ social capital n n n n Albion Emsemble aliss Artix Arts

Culture West Midlands’ social capital n n n n Albion Emsemble aliss Artix Arts Centre – Bromsgrove Association of European Conservatoires Belmont Arts Centre – Shropshire Birmingham Arts Marketing (2) Birmingham Association of Youth Clubs Birmingham Conservatories Birmingham Educational Arts Forum Birmingham Hippodrome Birmingham Royal Ballet Black Country Touring British Double Reed Society Connexions John Fenny Charitable Trust Herefordshire Cultural Consortium n n n n Local Government Association mac (2) Millennium Point Trust Motionhouse Dance Theatre Music Educational Council National Association of Youth Orchestras National Trust New Victoria Theatre Sound Futures Symphony Hall Birmingham Total Theatre Network Tourism West Midlands Trans Europe Halles Warwick Arts Centre West Midlands Historic Environment Forum West Midlands Life

AERC’s social capital n n n Alcohol Concern Centre for Information on Beverage Alcohol

AERC’s social capital n n n Alcohol Concern Centre for Information on Beverage Alcohol Chinese National Healthy Eating Living Centre Diaego Foundation International Agency on Tobacco and Health International Cochrane Collaboration Royal Colleges of the Physician of the UK (Public Health Faculty) Motivational Interviewing Trainers International National Heart Forum Portland Group TACADE

Natural History Museum’s social capital n n n n n 21 st Century Tiger

Natural History Museum’s social capital n n n n n 21 st Century Tiger British Ecological Society (2) Buckinghamshire Foundation Campaign for Science and Engineering Central & Cecil Housing Trust Darwin Trust Dolphin Square Charitable Trust Earth Centre Environmental Advice Centre EURISY Friends of Arundel Cricket Club Gardens Pension Trustees Limited Helmholtz Gemeinschaft – Germany Intellectual Property Bar Association International Fellowship Committee Italgas Prize for Energy and Environment IUCN Species Survival Commission Kennedy Memorial Fund London First n n n n n Mac. Millan Trust Observatory MCC National Botanical Garden of Wales New West End Company River and Rowing Museum – Henley-on. Thames Royal Albert Hall Royal Botanical Garden – Edinburgh Royal Sun Alliance West End Board Royal United Services Institute St Andrews Prize St-Martins-in-the-Field Shaw Trust UK-China 21 st Century Group Wellcome Trust West End Commission Wildscreen Trust Windsor Leadership Trust Work. Aid Ltd

Conclusions n n n Social position is important for London’s museums Social positions are

Conclusions n n n Social position is important for London’s museums Social positions are important for national bodies Social capital is important for regional bodies National institutions are not overly ‘national’ Are UK museums less democratic than their US counterparts? david. [email protected] manchester. ac. uk