The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865 1877 The Problems

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The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865 - 1877

The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865 - 1877

The Problems of Peace 1 in 20 Southerners were either wounded or killed Yankees

The Problems of Peace 1 in 20 Southerners were either wounded or killed Yankees had either taken, destroyed, or burned anything they could find that might have been useful to the Confederates 2/3 of the Southern railroad system was unable to operate because of damage Inflation was as much as 300% & Confederate issued war bonds were worthless

Agriculture in the South Hopelessly crippled n n n Slave-labor had collapsed Seed was

Agriculture in the South Hopelessly crippled n n n Slave-labor had collapsed Seed was scarce Livestock had been driven out by Yankees Gov’t confiscated any cotton left in warehouses Planter aristocrats were reduced to proud poverty

Freedmen Define Freedom 13 th Amendment (1865) freed ALL slaves n Resisted by slaveowners

Freedmen Define Freedom 13 th Amendment (1865) freed ALL slaves n Resisted by slaveowners Master-Slave Relationship n n Loyalty caused some to stay while others left immediately Some violence Many blacks began traveling to test their freedom n n Searched for family members Looked for economic opportunities Many changed their names

Life for the Freedmen Exodusters (1878 – 1880) 25, 000 blacks from Louisiana, Texas,

Life for the Freedmen Exodusters (1878 – 1880) 25, 000 blacks from Louisiana, Texas, & Mississippi went to Kansas n Slowed only when steamboat captains refused to transport black migrants across the Mississippi River Church became the focus of black community n Set up their own churches Education became very important Established societies for -improvement n Raise funds to purchase land, build schools, & hire teachers self

The Freedmen’s Bureau Created by Congress on March 3, 1865 Controlled by the War

The Freedmen’s Bureau Created by Congress on March 3, 1865 Controlled by the War Dept. Developed to help ex-slaves who were uneducated, unskilled, without money or property, & with little knowledge of how to survive as free people Primitive welfare agency n Provide food, clothing, medical care, & education both to freedmen and white refugees Lead by General Oliver O. Howard n Founded Howard University, Washington, D. C.

The Freedmen’s Bureau Purpose n n n Helped find homes & jobs Negotiated labor

The Freedmen’s Bureau Purpose n n n Helped find homes & jobs Negotiated labor contracts Built hospitals Set up schools & provided teachers Provided legal help Provision stated that land confiscated from former Confederates would be given to former slaves -- “forty acres and a mule” Pres. Johnson vetoed bureau & returned all land to former owners

President Andrew Johnson (D) Never attended school Champion of the poor whites Elected to

President Andrew Johnson (D) Never attended school Champion of the poor whites Elected to Congress (Tenn) n Refused to secede with his own state Nominated for the Vice Pres to ensure support from War Democrats & other -Southern elements Dogmatic champion of state’s rights & the Constitution Description p. 493 pro

Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan 10% Plan (1863) n n 10% of each states’ voters had

Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan 10% Plan (1863) n n 10% of each states’ voters had to take an oath of allegiance to the US New state gov’t with emancipation Goal: rapid readmission of the southern states n Based on forgiveness w Most ex-Confederates would be granted amnesty after oath was taken w High-ranking ex-Confederates would have to ask the president personally for pardon Lincoln believed that the South had never actually seceded

Republican Reconstruction Plan Wade-Davis Bill (1864) n n Required 50% of state’s voters take

Republican Reconstruction Plan Wade-Davis Bill (1864) n n Required 50% of state’s voters take an oath of allegiance Demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation Pocket-vetoed by Lincoln Republicans believed that the states should be admitted as “Conquered Provinces” n Based on punishment

Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan May 1865 n n Supported Lincoln’s policy but required more Disfranchised

Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan May 1865 n n Supported Lincoln’s policy but required more Disfranchised certain leading Confederates with property over $20, 000 w However, they could petition to the President personally for pardon w Pardons were granted in abundance n n Special state conventions – required to the ordinances of secession Repudiate all Confederate debts Ratify the 13 th Amendment Pardoned all rebel leaders 12 - 1868 repeal

The Baleful Black Codes Laws to regulate the affairs of ex-slaves Nov. 1865 –

The Baleful Black Codes Laws to regulate the affairs of ex-slaves Nov. 1865 – Mississippi passes the first codes n Varied in severity from state to state Purpose: Ensure stable & subservient labor force n n Penalties for those who “jumped” their labor contracts Codes aimed at restoring the race relations to pre-Civil War w Forbade blacks from serving on juries, from renting or leasing land, & voting

Results of the Black Codes Thousands of former slaves became sharecroppers (landless whites also)

Results of the Black Codes Thousands of former slaves became sharecroppers (landless whites also) n Became slaves to the soil and to their creditors Not favored in the North n Was the war pointless?

Congressional Reconstruction Southern states presented themselves in the Capitol in Dec. 1865 n Voters

Congressional Reconstruction Southern states presented themselves in the Capitol in Dec. 1865 n Voters in the South had reelected former statesmen w Many were Confederate leaders n Republicans were infuriated by “whitewashed rebels” Republicans feared that the South would be stronger than ever n n Slaves would now count as one whole person 12 more votes in Congress & 12 more electoral votes

Republican Fears South would join with Northern Democrats & win control of Congress &

Republican Fears South would join with Northern Democrats & win control of Congress & the White House n n Virtually re-enslave the blacks Dismantle the economic program Reroute the transcontinental railroad Repeal the Homestead Act Republicans were alarmed that Johnson announced on 6, 1865 that the Union been restored had Dec.

Johnson Clashes with Congress Feb. 1866 – Johnson vetoed bill extending live of the

Johnson Clashes with Congress Feb. 1866 – Johnson vetoed bill extending live of the Freedmen’s Bureau (later repassed) March 1866 – Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill n Citizenship for African Americans Johnson vetoed on constitutional grounds April 1866 – Congress overrode veto Congress pushes to add the Civil Rights Bill to the constitution as the 14 th Amendment

14 th Amendment 4 parts: n n Citizenship & civil rights to freedmen When

14 th Amendment 4 parts: n n Citizenship & civil rights to freedmen When a state denies citizens the vote, its representation shall be reduced Disqualified Confederate leaders from holding office Debts incurred in aid of rebellion were made void Ratification was required in order for states to reenter into the Union *** Did not grant the right to vote ****

Johnson Summer of 1866 -- “Swing ‘round the circle” n n Series of speeches

Johnson Summer of 1866 -- “Swing ‘round the circle” n n Series of speeches given by Johnson accusing the Radical Republicans of planning riots & murder in the South Goal was to take votes away from radicals in Congress w DID NOT WORK!! Republicans won 2/3 majority both houses in

Republican Principles & Programs Republicans now had a veto-proof Congress & control over Reconstruction

Republican Principles & Programs Republicans now had a veto-proof Congress & control over Reconstruction Radicals in Congress n n Charles Sumner – Senate Thaddeus Stevens – House Radicals - social & economic transformation of the South Moderates - policies that prevented violations of citizens’ rights Both wanted black suffrage

Military Reconstruction map page 490 Reconstruction Act – March 2, 1867 n n Divided

Military Reconstruction map page 490 Reconstruction Act – March 2, 1867 n n Divided the South into five military districts Each district was commanded by a Union general & policed by soldiers Temporarily disfranchised former Confederates States required to ratify the 14 th Amendment & give full suffrage to black adult males Radicals were still concerned that the South would be readmitted & then withdraw black suffrage

Results of Military Reconstruction 15 th Amendment – Ratified in 1870 n Gave suffrage

Results of Military Reconstruction 15 th Amendment – Ratified in 1870 n Gave suffrage to all black males By 1870, all Southern states had reorganized their governments & had been accorded full rights 1877 – All of the federal troops were removed from the South n However, once the troops were removed, the white “Redeemers” took control again

What About The Women? Women were upset because they were left out of the

What About The Women? Women were upset because they were left out of the Reconstruction amendments Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton n Many women were fighting for slaves & their rights Woman’s Loyal League – helped petition for the 13 th Amendment 14 th Amendment used the word “male” 15 th Amendment did not include the word “sex”

Realities of Radical Reconstruction Black suffrage n Both Lincoln & Johnson proposed limited black

Realities of Radical Reconstruction Black suffrage n Both Lincoln & Johnson proposed limited black vote w Education, property ownership, or military service n 15 th Amendment was hypocritical w North denied blacks the vote Blacks began to organized politically n Union League – assisted by Northern blacks w Taught civic duties & campaigned for Republicans w Later built churches & schools, helped with grievances, & recruited militias to defend black communities

Blacks Get Elected Some were elected as delegates to state constitutional conventions Between 1868

Blacks Get Elected Some were elected as delegates to state constitutional conventions Between 1868 – 1876: n n 14 black congressmen 2 black senators: w Hiram Revels w Blanche K. Bruce 1890 – complete disfranchisement of blacks in the South/ literacy test used

Scalawags & Carpetbaggers Scalawags – Southerners were former Unionists & Whigs/ supported Republicans Carpetbaggers

Scalawags & Carpetbaggers Scalawags – Southerners were former Unionists & Whigs/ supported Republicans Carpetbaggers – sleazy Northerners who had moved South to seek personal power & profit

Outcomes of Reconstruction Radical Legislatures: n n Took steps toward adequate public schools Tax

Outcomes of Reconstruction Radical Legislatures: n n Took steps toward adequate public schools Tax systems were streamlined Launched public works Property rights guaranteed to women Corruption n Used politically inexperienced blacks as pawns

Ku Klux Klan Many whites resented the success & ability of black legislators as

Ku Klux Klan Many whites resented the success & ability of black legislators as much as they resented alleged “corruption” “Invisible Empire of the South” n n n Founded in Tenn in 1866 by Nathan Bedford Forrest Successful in intimidation Purpose was to keep blacks in their place Force Acts of 1870 & 1871 passed by Congress

Johnson’s Impeachment 1867 – Congress passes the Tenure of Office Act n n Required

Johnson’s Impeachment 1867 – Congress passes the Tenure of Office Act n n Required president to have the consent of the Senate before removing appointees once they had been approved Purpose was to keep Edwin M. Stanton in office Johnson violated Act when he dismisses Stanton in 1868 House voted to impeach for “high crimes & misdemeanors” May 1868 – Senate failed to convict by 1 vote

Purchase of Alaska 1867 – Russia wanted to sell Alaska to US US did

Purchase of Alaska 1867 – Russia wanted to sell Alaska to US US did not want to offend Russia Sec of State William Seward signed treaty n n Purchase price - $7. 2 million “Seward’s Folly” “Seward’s Icebox” Territory was rumored to have furs, fish, & gold n Found to be full of natural resources - oil