The Ocean Depths Zones of the Ocean Epipelagic

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The Ocean Depths

The Ocean Depths

Zones of the Ocean • Epipelagic- Photic Zone (500 - 650 ft) – Sun,

Zones of the Ocean • Epipelagic- Photic Zone (500 - 650 ft) – Sun, plants, photosynthesis, O 2 • Mesopelagic- Dim light, but no plants – No photosynthesis – 660 -3000 ft • Deep sea- perpetually dark

Mesopelagic: Dim Light • Main thermocline- large temperature change • Animals: Midwater • •

Mesopelagic: Dim Light • Main thermocline- large temperature change • Animals: Midwater • • • Zooplankton Krill Shrimps Ostracods Amphipods Jellyfish Copepods Comb Jellies Vampire squid

Mesopelagic Fish: 1. Bristlemouth Most abundant fish on earth

Mesopelagic Fish: 1. Bristlemouth Most abundant fish on earth

2. Viperfish

2. Viperfish

3. Dragonfish

3. Dragonfish

4. Hachetfish

4. Hachetfish

Mesopelagic Adaptations • Only about 20 % of food produced in the epipelagic makes

Mesopelagic Adaptations • Only about 20 % of food produced in the epipelagic makes it to the mesopelagic. 1. Small size: Hides easily and uses less energy 2. Large mouths- hinged extendable jaws (large teeth) – Usually will eat anything that will fit in mouth

3. Non-migrators (couch-potato fish) • Fishes: – – – Ambush Predators Flabby, watery, flesh

3. Non-migrators (couch-potato fish) • Fishes: – – – Ambush Predators Flabby, watery, flesh instead of muscle no swim bladder soft, weak bones no spines or scales

Blob Fish

Blob Fish

Vertical Migrators • • • Swim up at night to feed. Well developed muscles

Vertical Migrators • • • Swim up at night to feed. Well developed muscles and bones Swim bladder for buoyancy Tolerate temperature changes Vertical Migration is important in transporting food into deep water • This increases food supply in mesopelagic • Non-migrators feed on migrators

4. Sense Organs • • • Tubular eyes- up or forward to increase field

4. Sense Organs • • • Tubular eyes- up or forward to increase field of vision Lateral lines= touch Very large eyes = more surface area to collect light

5. Coloration and body shape • Countershading • Reduction of the silhouette • Laterally

5. Coloration and body shape • Countershading • Reduction of the silhouette • Laterally compressed bodies reduce outline

Bioluminescence

Bioluminescence

6. Bioluminescence • Counterillumination- light production that helps animal blend in with background light

6. Bioluminescence • Counterillumination- light production that helps animal blend in with background light filtering down from the surface • Nearly all is blue. • Light can be from photophores, special cells, glands, ink. • Can be used in communication and to attract mates, vision, or to lure prey.

Oxygen Minimum Layer • Gas exchange from atmosphere & photosynthesis • 1, 600 ft-

Oxygen Minimum Layer • Gas exchange from atmosphere & photosynthesis • 1, 600 ft- O 2 minimum layer

The World of Perpetual Darkness • Bathypelagic 3, 000 - 13, 000 ft •

The World of Perpetual Darkness • Bathypelagic 3, 000 - 13, 000 ft • Abyssopelagic 13, 000 - 20, 000 ft • Hadalpelagic 20, 000 – 36, 000 ft

Life in the Darkness • • • 5% of food makes it to deep

Life in the Darkness • • • 5% of food makes it to deep water “Couch potato” fish Drab gray, off-white or black Small eyes or blind Huge mouths and expandable stomachs Anglerfish use “lure” to catch prey, communicate and attract mates.

Anglerfish

Anglerfish

Sex in the Deep • • • Hermaphrodites- both sex organs Bioluminescence – attracts

Sex in the Deep • • • Hermaphrodites- both sex organs Bioluminescence – attracts mates Pheromones- special chemical released to attract mates • Male parasitism- anglerfish attaches to female for life

Life in the Benthos • Benthic animals have more time to find food and

Life in the Benthos • Benthic animals have more time to find food and eat it (deposit feeders) • Slow decomposition of detritus • Fecal pellets are an important source of organic matter. • Slow growth but long life (Deep-sea gigantism) gigantism

Hydrothermal Vents • Undersea hot springs associated with midocean ridges • Discovered in 1977

Hydrothermal Vents • Undersea hot springs associated with midocean ridges • Discovered in 1977 by Bob Ballard • Tube worms (3. 3 ft long) • Clams (12 in) • Mussels • Shrimps • Crabs • Fishes

Chemosynthesis • Seawater trickles down through the cracks in the crust, is heated and

Chemosynthesis • Seawater trickles down through the cracks in the crust, is heated and emerges at hydrothermal vents. • Contains hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and other minerals • Bacteria use H 2 S to make organic matter which is chemosynthesis • Primary producer is chemosynthetic bacteria

Tube Worms + Bacteria = Symbiosis • The giant tube worm contains symbiotic bacteria

Tube Worms + Bacteria = Symbiosis • The giant tube worm contains symbiotic bacteria that allow the worms to absorb H 2 S. • The bacteria give the worms sugars from chemosynthesis. • Bacteria get a home.