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THE NEW TESTAMENT USE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT Bridging Christocentric and Christotelic
Hosea in Romans 9: 24 -25 "even us, whom he also called, not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles? As he says in Hosea: 'I will call them "my people" who are not my people; and I will call her "my loved one" who is not my loved one'" = Hosea 2: 23 and 1: 10 © Douglas Moo
Checking With Hosea 1: 7 -11 7 Yet I will show love to Judah; and I will save them—not by bow, sword or battle, or by horses and horsemen, but I, the LORD their God, will save them. ” After she had weaned Lo. Ruhamah, Gomer had another son. 9 Then the LORD said, “Call him Lo-Ammi (which means “not my people”), for you are not my people, and I am not your God. “Yet the Israelites will be like the sand on the seashore, which cannot be measured or counted. In the place where it was said to them, ‘You are not my people, ’ they will be called ‘children of the living God. ’ 11 The people of Judah and the people of Israel will come together; they will appoint one leader and will come up out of the land, for great will be the day of Jezreel.
Solutions Problem disappears when attention is paid to both NT text and OT text and context (W. Kaiser) Problem disappears when we stop imposing modern standards on ancient literature (Jewish methods of interpretation and application) Divine Intent behind the human author (e. g. , S. L. Johnson) Canonical Sensus Plenior (“Fuller Sense”)
Hosea in Canonical Context Hosea 1: 8 -11 "Yet the Israelites will be like the sand on the seashore, which cannot be measured or counted. In the place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people, ' they will be called 'children of the living God. ' 11 The people of Judah and the people of Israel will come together; they will appoint one leader and will come up out of the land, for great will be the day of Jezreel. " © Douglas Moo
Hosea in Canonical Context Genesis 22: 17: Promise to Abraham "I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. " (See also Gen. 32: 13; & cf. 13: 16; 28: 14) © Douglas Moo
Confirmation from Romans 9 24 even us, whom he also called, not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles? 25 As he says in Hosea: “I will call them ‘my people’ who are not my people; and I will call her ‘my loved one’ who is not my loved one, ” 26 and, “In the very place where it was said to them, ‘You are not my people, ’ there they will be called ‘children of the living God. ’ ” 27 Isaiah cries out concerning Israel: “Though the number of the Israelites be like the sand by the sea, only the remnant will be saved. 28 For the Lord will carry out his sentence on earth with speed and finality. ” © Douglas Moo
Canonical Development: "Sensus Plenior" A pattern discernible throughout the NT according to which the OT is given a "fuller meaning" in light of continuing revelation from God (Moo/Naselli, “The Problem of the New Testament’s Use of the Old Testament. ” In volume 1 of “But My Words Will Never Pass Away”: The Enduring Authority of the Christian Scriptures. Edited by D. A. Carson. 2 vols. ) © Douglas Moo
Sensus Plenior Canon-focused Organic development from OT Rooted in New Covenant Fulfillment © Douglas Moo
Recent Debates “Christotelic” Peter Enns, Inspiration and Incarnation (2005) “Christocentric” Greg Beale, The Erosion of Inerrancy in Evangelicalism: Responding to New Challenges (2008) “Christo-focused”?
Takeaways Standard of “truth” Avoiding post-modern multiple “truths” Christ is truly “in” the OT text The challenge of combining good exegesis with good theology Single Author, Single Story