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THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION AND THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION Chapter 1 Section 2
THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION § The Neolithic Revolution is a revolution that occurred in the Neolithic Age, the period of human history from 8000 to 4000 B. C. § Neolithic is Greek for “New Stone”. § Often referred to as the New Stone Age the Neolithic Revolution was the shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and growing of food. § We call this process systemic agriculture.
SYSTEMIC AGRICULTURE § The planting of grains and vegetables provided a regular supply of food. § The domestication of animals added a steady source of meat, milk, and wool. § Domestication means adaptation for human use. § Animals could also be used to do work. § What is the agricultural revolution? § Human wide transition from hunting and gathering, to farming and herding a sustainable food source.
What are the two revolutionary changes of the Neolithic Revolution? § The ability to acquire food on a regular basis, thus giving humans greater control over the environment. § Humans gave up their nomadic lifestyle and began to settle down in communities.
THE GROWING OF CROPS Between 8000 and 5000 B. C. , systematic agriculture developed in different parts of the world. People in Southwest Asia had begun growing wheat and barley as well as domesticating pigs, cows, and sheep by 8000 B. C.
Where did farming spread to from Southwest Asia? § Central Europe By 4000 B. C. farming was well established in Central Europe and the coastal regions of the Mediterranean Sea.
§ Where did the cultivation of wheat and barley spread to by 6000 B. C. ? § The Nile Valley of Egypt.
FARMING IN AFRICA From the Nile Valley, crops the spread into other parts of Africa § Especially Sudan and Ethiopia. In the woodlands and tropical forests of Central Africa, a separate farming system emerged with the growing of tubers, or root crops, such as yams, and tree crops such as bananas
FARMING IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD The farming of wheat also moved eastward into the highlands of northwestern and central India between 7000 and 5000 B. C. By 5000 B. C. , rice was being grown in Southeast Asia. Mesoamericans, inhabitants of present-day Mexico and Central America, grew beans, squash, and maize (corn) between 7000 and 5000 B. C. They also domesticated which two animals? § dogs § fowl – (chickens)
§ What helped give rise to more permanent settlements? § The growing of crops on a regular basis.
NEOLITHIC FARMING VILLAGES Where did Neolithic villages appear? § Europe, India, Egypt, China, and Mesoamerica. Where were the oldest and largest Neolithic farming villages? § Southwest Asia.
JERICHO § Jericho, in Palestine near the Dead Sea, was in existence by 8000 B. C. Catal Huyuk, located in modern-day Turkey, was even larger. §Spanning 32 acres, its population probably reached 6000 inhabitants during its high point from 6700 to 5700 B. C.
CATAL HUYUK Describe the homes of Catal Huyuk’s people. § Simple mud houses, built so close to one anothere were very few streets, people had to walk along rooftops in order to enter their homes.
CATAL HUYUK How many different products were grown in this community? § 12 People grew their own food, and kept it in storerooms in their own homes. Domesticated animals, especially cattle. How can we tell that these people also hunted? § Hunting scenes on the walls of the ruins.
Food storage made it possible for people to do other things than farming. Some became craftsmen, or skilled workers that made products such as jewelry and weapons. These products were traded with neighboring peoples
§ What was the side effect of outside trade on the people of Catal Huyuk? § The people were exposed to a wider world around them.
Consequences of the Neolithic Revolution. The dramatic changes that took place during this period led to further changes, affecting the way that people would live for thousands of years. The separate building of homes and storage buildings for food, led to the development of trade. The trade of goods caused people to begin specializing in certain goods, and the division of labor developed. Stone tools became more refined as flint blades were used to make
MEN AND WOMEN IN CATAL HUYUK Describe the effect of the change to systematic agriculture on the relationship between men and women. § Men – became more active in farming and herding animals. Jobs that took them away from the settlement. § Women – remained behind to care for the children, weave cloth, turning milk into cheese.
THE END OF THE NEOLITHIC AGE § Between 4000 and 3000 B. C. , the use of metals marked a new level of human control over the environment and its resources. § Before 4000 B. C. , craftspeople had discovered that by heating metalbearing rocks, they could turn metal to liquid. The liquid metal could then be cast into molds to make tools and weapons.
§ What was the first metal to be used in making tools? § Copper. § After 4000 B. C. , people in western Asia discovered that a combination of Copper and Tin created Bronze, a metal far harder and more durable than copper. § The widespread use of bronze has led historians to classify the period of human history between 3000 to 1200 B. C. as the Bronze Age.
§ As the inhabitants mastered farming, they gradually began to develop more complex societies. § As their wealth increased, these societies began creating armies and to build walled. § By the beginning of the Bronze Age people were concentrated in large numbers in the river valleys of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China.
THE EMERGENCE OF CIVILIZATION Define culture. § The way of life a people follows. A civilization is a complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number of common elements.
CIVILIZATION What are the six most important characteristics of civilizations? § cities § governments § religion § social structure § writing § art
THE RISE OF CITIES • The first civilizations developed in river valleys, where people could carry on the large-scale farming that was necessary to feed large populations, which resided in new patterns of living.
THE BIRTH OF GOVERNMENTS Which three elements led to the Birth of governments? § Growing population numbers § The need to maintain the food supply § The need to build walls for defense
WHAT DO GOVERNMENTS DO? Governments organize and regulate human activity. They also provide a smooth interaction between various individuals and groups. The first civilizations were led by rulers - usually monarchs. § Monarchs are kings or queens who rule a kingdom.
HOW DID MONARCHS RULE? • Monarchs organized armies to protect their populations and made laws to regulate their subjects’ lives.
THE ROLE OF RELIGION • All early civilizations developed religions to explain the working forces of nature and the fact of their own existence. • Gods and Goddesses were often believed to be crucial to a community’s success.
• In order to win their favor, priests, supervised rituals aimed at pleasing the Gods and Goddesses. • This act gave the priests special powers and made them very important to the people. • Rulers also claimed that their power was based on divine approval, and some even claimed to be divine.
SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY CIVILIZATIONS Based on economic power. Rulers and an upper class of priests, government officials, and warriors dominated society. Below them was a large group of free people. § farmers § artisans § And Craftspeople. At the bottom of the society was a slave class.
Abundant food supplies created new opportunities, enabling some to work in occupations other than agriculture. The demand for luxury items amongst Upper class, encouraged artisans and craftspeople to create new products. Because trade brought new civilizations into contact with one another, it often led to the transfer of technology from one region to another.
However, the early river valley civilizations largely developed independently. Each civilization was based on developments that were connected directly to the agricultural revolution of the Neolithic Age
THE USE OF WRITING What was writing used to do and by whom in the early river valley civilizations? § Writing was used by priests, rulers, merchants, and artisans in order to keep accurate records. • Instead of writing, however, The Inca in Peru relied on well trained memory experts to keep track of their important matters.
What are the two main means in which writing was used by early civilizations? §Creative expression §Record Keeping
ARTISTIC ACTIVITY Temples and Pyramids were built as places for worship, sacrifice, or for the burial of rulers and other important people. Painting and Sculpture were developed to portray Gods and Goddesses or natural forces of the people’s religions.
ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS (HOMEWORK IF YOU DO NOT FINISH) . What changes occurred during the Neolithic Revolution that made the development of cities possible? 1 2. How did the systematic agriculture spread in different areas of the world?