- Slides: 12
“The Mother Tongue“ and Mother Tongue-based Multi Lingual Education Terry L. Todd and Eberhard Werner “Vaj kokdê xo sero ruweno, dik sılodê xo sero veyn dano!“
Mother Tongue The closest relationship one can ever experience is that of the mother and the unborn. - Every action, even inner movements like heartbeat, blood pressure or illness, are directly felt and reflected by the unborn. - The voice of the mother is not only heard but also felt as the glottis and the respiration system are close to the child. - The language in which a child by default is enculturated is the mother tongue. - Because of this enculturation process every culture expresses ethnocentrism, that is the innercultural perspective of being the “centre of the universe”. - Learning a second language opens this centralistic view up to others. - Forced second language learning by denial of the mother tongue leads to a retraction from this perspective and attacks the sacred bond between child and mother. -
Mother Tongue The acceptance of cultural and linguistic diversity starts with learning a second language under circumstances that motivate children. This process produces a wider understanding of cross-cultural encounters, a broader and better educated middle class, more economic and political stability in a nation state. - To read and write a minority language opens it up to public use. This proclaims its official status and carries weight to it. - A flexible and fluent integration of children using their mother tongue into the existing school system and its language of wider use works towards their equal status for higher education. -
“mı nêrışt bı mekteb” Estimation of illiterate Zaza and Kurds suggest about 15 -20% - most of them are women! Educational Graph from the survey “Biz Kimiz? ” (2006)
Educational Graph of Turkey Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level
Mother Tongue-based Multilingual Education (MLE) Mother Tongue Education in Basic School “Zuwanê xo mısnayen mektev dı”
A Vision The Zaza Community requests a granted passing on of its cultural and linguistic heritage to future generations. For their children at the same time they wish to be part of the influential Turkish culture and language to enter the higher education system.
Meran Zazay wazenê kı erf û adet û zuwanê xo bıgirê xeranti bını ew bıresnê qecandê xo. Ew ê wazenê kı kultırê, zıwanê Tırki zi bımusê kı bıresê cayêndo berz.
Phases in Multi Lingual Education L 1 training in oral skills L 1 training in oral and writing skills L 1 training in writing skills L 2 training in oral skills L 1 = e. g. Zazaki L 2 = e. g. Turkish 1 st grade / ilkokul birinci sınıfta Ongoing L 1 training in oral and writing skills More L 2 training in oral skills Start training L 2 writing skills Bilingual use of both languages in the school system either orally or in written form. Or: Transfer to L 2 as language of higher education. 2 nd grade / ilkokul: ikinci sınıfta
Discussion Are there any questions? MLE is criticised for being too expensive. fragmenting a nation into small language units thus leading to divisiveness and to ethnic conflict. confusing children in their cognitive development. hampering education in the national language. asking for too many resources (textbooks, teachers, standardization etc. ).