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THE MONSOON RAIN FOREST A Power. Point presentation by: Ajaelah Bennett & Christina Defelipe Period 5
Name and Origin • The Monsoon Rainforest, also known by dry forest or tropical deciduous forest, is derived from the Arabic “mausim”, meaning season. • Named after the Monsoon winds from Southeast Asia next to the Arabic Sea. Also called: • Dry Forest • Tropical Deciduous Forest
World Location: Global Map Tropical monsoon forests can be found in tropical areas in bands 10° and 25° north and south of the equator.
Location of Monsoon Rainforest • South East Asia • India • Northern Australia • West and Central Africa • Central South America • Western Madagascar
Abiotic Factors Some abiotic factors that control the Monsoon Rainforest are soil, winds, water, sunlight, and temperature. Soil- The pedogenic regime is characterized by the seasonal droughty, dry soil then followed by the doused, wet soil from the rainy season. Winds- The wind is the strongest abiotic characterization, as Monsoon winds are winds that change direction with seasons. In Monsoon rainforests, the rainy, wet season occurs after the Monsoon winds have arrived seasonally.
Abiotic Factors Water- There is a severe drought season after the Monsoon Winds change direction South, then a short, humid and intense wet season. Only the most well fit animals and plants can survive in the very drastic changing seasons. Sunlight- Monsoon forests have areas with thick, tall trees that strongly effect the amount of energy lower level plants receive, as well as determining the adaptations that animals develop.
Biotic Factors • The distribution of life in Monsoon Rainforests is a complex hierarchy between plants and animals, predator and prey. Some examples of biotic factors are: • Primates • Orchids • Leichhardt Tree • Bamboo • Estuary Crocodiles
Climate • Rainy season occurs December to April • May to November is utterly dry, sweltering at 35 Celsius • High temperatures, 26 Celsius annual average temperature • Frequently experiences severe cyclonic disturbances that interrupt average temperature and rainfall records • Average warm temperatures due to it’s proximity to the equator
Net Primary Productivity • The total biomass fixed by the vegetation in a unit time, Net Primary Productivity, in the Monsoon Rainforest is at 21002400 hectares per unit. • The Gross Primary production of monsoon forests is lower than tropical rainforests • The net primary productivity is very similar to tropical rainforest.
Role of Succession • Primary succession is the succession in which soil is devoid of life after a catastrophic event that removes all life in the biome. • Primary Succession in Monsoon Rainforests happens once flooding becomes so severe, the topsoil may be eroded. It also occurs in times of drought, when the land cakes and breaks so severely that all plants and life can be unsustainable until further growth.
Flow of Stores of Nutrients
Habitats Wet dry tropics of Australia • Regional subsets of the local savanna and mangrove mammal assemblages, and consequently share only a limited number of species in common. Iiana Canopies • Creepers, vines, and lianas (woody vines) are abundant in the canopy and make up a significant proportion of the vegetation in tropical rainforests.
• Inside a Monsoon Rainforest, creepers and vines are shown. • The layers in the Monsoon habitat of Australian wet dry tropics.
Niches • Banyan fig • Herbaceous epiphytes • Lianas • Leichardt tree • The niches are extensive roots to absorb underground water and leaves with the ability to retain stored water
Food Chain -The chain from a food source to the ultimate consumer.
Food Web -A series of organisms related by predator-prey and consumer-resource interactions.
Energy and Biomass Pyramid -A depiction of the amount of energy and biomass in each trophic level of an ecosystem
Pyramid of numbers -A representation in the form of a pyramid showing the feeding relationship and the number of organisms at each trophic level.
Trophic levels -Each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem, comprising organisms that share the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy.
Animals Adaptations • Rose Crowned Fruit Dove (shown) • Banded Fruit Dove • Pigeons from the Torres Strait These animals have adapted to migrate from areas seasonally to survive the intense drought and wet seasons within the monsoon Forest. • Estuarine Crocodiles (shown) • Black flying Foxes • Intermediate Egrets These animals adapt to live in the Monsoon Estuaries of Field Island, surrounded by various mangroves. • Brush Tailed Tree Rat • Chestnut Rails • Orange Scrubfowl • White Bellied Sea Eagle These animals adapt to eat all the sweet and attractive fruit of the Maranthes tree, littering the ground of the forest floor.
Human Activity • Through deforestation, humans deplete the vast amount of trees that populate the forest, turning the greenhouses gases into oxygen which helps fight climate change. • Humans often move into these areas, subsequently draining the available resources (water, minerals, land space) from the forest and interfering with the equilibrium of the environment. • By hunting animals in the Monsoon rainforest such as the Jaguar, humans create a ripple effect down the food web as using tools to vastly overpower certain species can lead to drastic change to the entire ecosystem.
• In recent years, humans and villages have continued into territory that was previously inhabited by other animals. • Humans have begun to see consequences, as over the past 5 years, 27 people have been killed by leopards from with thin the Garwhal forest division. • By driving leopard’s ecosystem out, the leopards have begun to reclaim territory though hunting humans by hiding in bushes. • The Monsoon rains are what often drive leopards deeper into town, as well as deforestation. • In order to combat this, villagers have begun to be cautionary of bushes and once a month clear bushes from the areas to prevent hiding spots. • In addition, drills have been proposed regarding man-animal encounters to prevent deaths and injuries once a leopard encounter has begun.