- Slides: 41
THE MIDDLE AGES Middle Creek High School
MIDDLE AGES – 3 MAJOR TIME PERIODS Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500
MIDDLE AGES – 3 MAJOR TIME PERIODS Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 • Dark Ages!! • Decline of the Roman Empire • Invasion of Germanic Tribes • Cultural, Social and Political Decline • Drastic Decrease in Population
MIDDLE AGES – 3 MAJOR TIME PERIODS High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 • Rapid Increase in Population • Barbarian Invasions Stopped • The Rise of Chivalry • Crusades • Weather & Prosperity Improved • Great Schism – Formal Split of Church
MIDDLE AGES – 3 MAJOR TIME PERIODS Late Middle Ages: 1250 – 1500 • Prosperity and Population Growth Halted! • Bubonic Plague (1348 -1350) • Great Famine (1315 -1317) • Fall of the Byzantine Empire 1453 • Hundred Years War (1337 -1453)
EUROPE IN THE 6 th CENTURY
Invasions of Western Europe In the 5 th Century German Invaders overran the Western half of the Roman Empire. Repeated invasions and constant warfare caused a series of changes that altered the economy, government, and culture. 1. Disruption of Trade (invasions broke down trade and businesses collapsed) 2. Downfall of Cities (economic & political collapses forced the abandonment of cities) 3. Population Shifts (when cities collapsed people fled to the countryside) 4. The Decline of Learning (Germanic invaders were illiterate, and illiteracy spread) 5. Loss of a Common Language (German speakers blended with Romans and Latin evolved into French, Spanish, and many other languages.
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge • (400 -600) Small Germanic Kingdoms replaced Roman Provinces and their borders constantly changed • Concept of Government Changes Roman Empire- Loyalty to public government and written law Germanic Kingdoms- family ties, personal liberty, small communities governed by unwritten rules & traditions *Germanic people felt no obligation to obey a ruler that they didn’t know*
Clovis Ruler of the Franks In 496, Clovis, the ruler of Franks saw a sign from God during a battle that he believed aided his army in victory. Clovis and 3, 000 of his warriors converted to Christianity. The Franks & The Church formed an alliance which helped to spread Christianity throughout Europe. Clovis died in 511, but the Franks continue their rule until the empire was divided in 843.
Charles the Hammer By 700 an official known as the major domo, or mayor of the palace, had become the most powerful person in the Frankish Kingdom. In 719 Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) held more power than the king. He defeated the Spanish Muslims at the Battle of Tours in 732. This victory prevented Western Europe from becoming part of the Muslim Empire and made Charles Martel a hero.
CHARLEMAGNE (742 – 814)
POPE CROWNED CHARLEMAGNE EMPEROR OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ON DEC 25, 800
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
Charlemagne as Emperor • Charlemagne, or Charles the Great was the grandson of Charles Martel • He was an imposing 6’ 4” and was a highly skilled warrior and ruler • During his reign he doubled the size of the Frankish Empire, making it the greatest since Rome • In 800 Pope Leo III named him Emperor, this marked a historic joining of Germanic Power, the Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire • He worked tirelessly to spread Christianity throughout his Empire, he maintained strong control by appointing royal agents (counts), and placed great importance on education
Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses • When Charlemagne died in 814, his son Louis the Pious became Emperor. Louis proved to be ineffective and when he died his three sons; Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German fought over control. • In 843, the brothers signed the Treaty of Verdun, dividing the Empire into three kingdoms. • As a result the Carolingian Dynasty lost power, giving rise to a new system of governing and landholding, feudalism.
CHARLEMAGNE’S EMPIRE COLLAPSES – TREATY OF VERDUN, 843
FEUDALISM A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.
THE ROAD TO KNIGHTHOOD
THE ROAD TO KNIGHTHOOD KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE
CHIVALRY: A CODE OF HONOR & BEHAVIOR
LIFE IN THE MEDIEVAL MANOR
A MEDIEVAL MANOR
The Medieval Catholic Church • The Church filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world and provided order it a time of chaos • The head of the Church was the Pope, followed by Cardinals, Bishops, Priests, Monks, and Nuns • It created Libraries & scriptoria where monks copied books and illustrated manuscripts • The Church controlled as much as 1/3 of all land in Europe and was extremely powerful politically and socially • People relied on the Church for education, protection, and salvation • It established Canon Law and courts to punish those who broke it, it you were guilty and excommunicated you would not receive salvation
A MEDIEVAL MONASTERY: THE SCRIPTORIUM
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURAL STYLE e Rounded Arches. e Barrel vaults. e Thick walls. e Darker, simplistic interiors. e Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.
FEUDALISM: THE RISE OF MEDIEVAL CASTLES: CARCASSONNE, FRANCE
THE RISE OF MEDIEVAL CASTLES: CARCASSONNE CASTLE, FRANCE
THE MEDIEVAL CASTLE
WARWICK CASTLE, ENGLAND
ANGERS CASTLE, FRANCE
TOWER OF LONDON, ENGLAND
TOWER OF LONDON, ENGLAND
CHEPSTOW CASTLE, WALES
LEEDS CASTLE, ENGLAND
EDINBURGH CASTLE, SCOTLAND
CAERNARFON CASTLE, WALES
NEUSCHWANSTEIN CASTLE, GERMANY
COATS OF ARMS
COATS OF ARMS
COATS OF ARMS