- Slides: 29
The Medieval Period 1066 -1485
The Norman Conquest n Medieval period also known as Middle Ages— between Roman Period and Renaissance n Normans descended from Vikings who had settled in Northwestern France--Normandy n William “the Conqueror” defeats Harold, King of England at the Battle of Hastings n William rules for 21 yrs, adopting Anglo. Saxon democracy/art and bringing French customs from their occupation in France
n William, duke of Normandy, was crowned king of England on Christmas Day, 1066. He commissioned Domesday 19 years later.
Normans and Anglo-Saxons MELD n Eventually Normans and Anglo-Saxons n n MELDED into a national English character Church/Court became a way for Anglo. Saxons to regain power Example: Thomas a Becket became Henry II’s Lord Chancellor and then Archbishop of Canterbury HOWEVER—Becket was murdered by a handful of Henry’s knights because he defended rights of Church against the king Became a Saint and hero of people
Land the Feudal System n Anglo-Saxon landowners conquered by n n William enable him to reward those who had fought for his power William bestowed land on vassals; therefore, no one owned their land as we own land today Vassal owed allegiance to the king paid primarily in military service Some argument over land boundaries as a result 1086 DOMESDAY BOOK
1086 DOMESDAY BOOK— book of judgments n William had a single scribe record an exhaustive record of landholders, their titles and possessions n Taxes now based on property held n Some resistance from monks
“Book of Judgements” The Domesday Book has been rebound at least five times. This picture shows Great Domesday after its binding for its ninth centenary in 1986.
The Church n Christianity major defining aspect of Western n n Europe Social/cultural/spiritual/political influence Education—teaching/writing/recording The universities at Oxford&Cambridge opening changed the function of monasteries and abbeys somewhat as centers of knowledge and record keeping Were often huge chunks of land—centers of industry
Mrs. Taylor at King’s College in Cambridge, England
n Punting on the River by Clare College where my brother did his PHD
Medieval Life n Feudal system—from farming to herding n n sheep with cottage industry for wool Payment made to feudal lords through money rather than labour Towns and Cities growing larger (London)— become centers of culture Festivals, theatre, religious monuments Merchant class selling wool goods grow wealthy
n Mrs. Taylor and her brother, Eric, in Trafalgar Square in London, England.
Medieval Life continued n English pop. Doubled between 1068 and 1348 resulted in Plague n Black Death/Plague 14 th C caused great socio-economic change • • • Increased labour opportunities for peasants Questioning of social order Corruption in the Church challenged Individual life & achievement emphasized Erosion of feudal system—peasants no longer tied to manor
Guilds are formed n Guild: Organizations that regulate prices and standards for merchandise n Created by merchant class—later cottage industry n Apprentices and journeymen n Workers who created great English cathedrals of the time period—stonecutters, carpenters, masons, stainers, glass blowers
Lifestyles of the Middle Ages n Not a comfortable life n Food seasonal n Travel unsafe and challenging A BATH WHEN YOU’RE BORN AND A BATH WHEN YOU DIE!
English Law n William worked to create written law that applied to all people = common law n PRIMOGENITURE: firstborn son exclusive rights to father’s titles, lands, and estates n Ordeals: Tasks that determined a person’s guilt or innocence eg. Gawain and The Green Knight
English Law continued n 1215 - Pope Innocent III declared that ordeal n n n system is “irrational” Jury system comes into being Magna Carta (Great Charter) 1215 Originally concerned with taxes levied by the king More importantly, right not to be illegally detained & right to trial by jury (habeus corpus) Beginnings of representative gov’t in parliament
The Crusades-1095, 1191, 1202, 1217, 1270 n Pope Urban II—first crusade proclaimed n Rescue Jerusalem from the Turks n Caused terrible raiding, murder, rape, theft n Benefited Christian Europe—learned about Arabic culture (math&medicine) n Encouraged idea of CHIVALRY
Chivalry—who’s got it? n Chivalry: well mannered sensitive men toward women n Knightly warrior dedicated and selfaware off as well as bold and brave on or off the battlefield n Ideal not reality n Chivalry & Romance unite!
Hundred Year’s’ War 1337 -1453 n Normans and Saxons merging cultural identities in English identity n English monarchy held onto French possessions/land = Wars in France n Longbows helped English win many battles in France
The War of the Roses n 1455 -1485 civil war between House of Lancaster (red rose) and House of York (white rose) n Henry VII unites families by marrying Elizabeth of York founding Tudor line
Medieval Literature n The Romance – – Chivalry Enhanced with fairy tales, giants, dragons, etc. Originated in France Quests knights accomplish n King Arthur and Knights of the Round Table based on Celtic folk tales – Morte D’arthur – Sir Gawain and the Green Knight n Conquest of Troy based on Roman stories n Autobiography, travel writing, devotional writing (saints) Julian of Norwich & Margery Kempe
Folk Poetry and Drama Farmers and cottage industry in England Scotland = Ballads Oral tradition 18 th C finally written down and published Dramas not as popular as later became in Elizabethan England Performances of Bible stories/miracle plays performed Morality plays followed 15 th C (virtues and vices)