- Slides: 54
The Medieval Period 1066 -1485 AD 1066 -the year the Normans defeated the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings. William the Conqueror, a Norman (French), was now king of England.
Norman Rule in England A. B. C. The Anglo-Saxon culture and Norman/French culture blended. Normans ruled less than 100 years. Brought Feudalism: land divided among noble barons. Knights served barons. Lowest class were the serfs or peasants.
The Royal Houses of Plantaganet, Lancaster, & York A. B. 1154 -end of Norman Rule, beginning of Royalty Plantaganet Rulers 1. 1 st one-Henry II-increased King’s power and took it from the barons. Wanted also to lead Roman Cath. Ch. He had Archbishop Thomas Becket of Canterbury murdered— 1170. 2. 1215 -King John singed Magna Carta. In this document, he agreed not to raise taxes w/o consent of barons. 3. Others-Richard the Lionhearted, John, Edward I, Richard II (last one)
More Royal Houses Info C. Lancaster Rulers 1. 3 Kings: Henry IV, V, and VI 2. Henry VI-went insane-gave rule to uncle, Duke of York, while he recuperated. 3. 1455 -Henry VI got better, wanted throne back. Duke fought & won-war 30 years. “War of the Roses”
Royalty continued D. York Rulers 1. 1 st one-Edward IV-encouraged William Caxton to make printing press. 2. Edward V-only 12 years old when he takes throne. Uncle Richard III takes over-kills Ed V and his brother-then takes the throne-Richard III killed in battle because of this. 3. Henry Tudor takes over, distant relative of Lancasters
Chivalric Life in Medieval England A. B. Knights: fought French, journeyed to Holy Lands, jousted in tournaments Chivalry: ideal knights must live byhonorable, courteous, generous, brave, skillful in battle, respectful to women, helpful to weak.
Religious Life A. B. C. Roman Catholic Church-all belongedbarons, knights, serfs. Knights fought for church-crusades for Holy Land Cathedrals were built during this time
City Life A. B. C. D. 1349 -Black Death/Bubonic Plague killed 1/3 of the people in England. After plague-cities sprung up everywhere. Work Guilds formed End of Knighthood-invention of gunpowder
Storytelling A. B. Romances: stories with a blend of chivalry, touches of love, magic & marvels. Folk Ballads: stories sung by common people.
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight • Background • Language • Romantic Poetry • Poetic Elements • Symbolism • Key Terms • Characters
The “Pearl Poet” Author is anonymous. Known as the “Pearl Poet” because he also wrote the poem “The Pearl”. Composed “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” around 1370.
The “Pearl Poet” Probably a member of the court since he is familiar with court life. Associated with religion because of the religious tone.
Background Information King Arthur is a legendary king who was probably a warrior. No one knows if he is real or not. He was the head of the Knight of the Round Table. In the stories, he lives in Camelot, a fictitious place where the legends take place.
Like the culture itself, Arthur is young and inexperienced. The knights are equally clueless. Knights typically go out on adventures and face the forces of good and evil, uncertain how to balance bravery and Christianity. As a Christian knight, he must decide how best to act in ambiguous situations.
Middle English �English spoken between 1066 and about 1470 �Followed Old English, also called Anglo. Saxon, spoken from mid-5 th century CE • Germanic influences �What happened in 1066? • Norman (French: Normandy) conquest of England • Added French influences!
What is a Romance? A narrative set in the world of knights, kings and supernatural creatures. Relates to and deals with King Arthur and his court.
Notes, cont. �Romance 1. 2. 3. poem includes three stages: a dangerous quest a test of honor or courage and a return to the point from which the quest began. The basic material of medieval romance is knightly activity and adventure; we might best define medieval romance as a story of adventure.
Aspects of a Medieval Romance Any "love interest" is likely to be incidental to the story
Aspects of a Medieval Romance The stories were often woven around a well known figure.
Aspects of a Medieval Romance The hero is always made to conform to medieval conceptions of a knight.
Aspects of a Medieval Romance Often follows the loose pattern of a quest.
Aspects of a Medieval Romance A tale of adventure in which knights, kings, or distressed ladies, are motivated by love, religious faith, or the mere desire for adventure.
Aspects of a Medieval Romance Usually set in remote times or places.
Aspects of a Medieval Romance Involves elements of the fantastic or supernatural
Poetic Elements Meter Alliteration Rhyme
1. He is a model of faith, loyalty, or bravery… 2. who makes a long, difficult journey… 3. to do battle on behalf of another… 4. perhaps using his own superhuman talents… 5. against an enemy who may himself have or be guarded by supernatural powers.
Alliteration �“the repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables. ” �“Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. ” �Try it out in the first four lines of SGGK �“Since the siege and the assault was ceased at Troy, The walls breached and burnt down to brands and ashes, The knight that had knotted the nets of deceit Was impeached for his perfidy, proven most true. . . ” (1 -4).
Symbolism Gawain’s Shield Colors Seasons
Characters Sir Gawain The Green Knight King Arthur
“Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” Sir Gawain is the main character. Gawain goes into the wilderness to face the Green Knight as he has honorably promised. He prides himself on being the perfect Christian knight. His shield and its symbolism remind him to be Christ-like.
The Green Knight Sir Gawain’s main opposition in the story. He is a richly decorated knight, who has green skin and hair.
King Arthur The king of Camelot. Uncle of Sir Gawain. It is at his celebration feast that the Green Knight challenges the court to a game.
The Lord and Lady of the Castle Gawain spends his time there before meeting the Green Knight. .
Why is the Knight Green? Use what we have discussed about colors to predict why the knight is green? What could this color symbolize about him?
Knights Characteristics of a knight: strength, skilled at arms and horsemanship, courageous, loyal, and courteous. Sir Gawain – a knight of the round table. At first considered the weakest of most insignificant knight. Volunteers to accept a challenge from the Green Knight.
Definition of Chivalry 1. Prowess: ability to fight
Definition of Chivalry 2. Loyalty: to God, King, and lady
Definition of Chivalry 3. Generosity: includes gift-giving and hospitality
Definition of Chivalry 4. Franchise: that "something special" that distinguishes a knight; linked to birthright
Definition of Chivalry 5. Courtesy: initially "behavior at court, " the term emphasizes behavior towards a lady
A Few Rules of Chivalry Include…
Live to serve King and Country.
Never use a weapon on an opponent not equal to the attack.
Exhibit courage in word and deed.
Always keep one's word of honor.
Be respectful of host, women, and honor.
The Holiday celebrations take place at King Arthur’s castle in Camelot. It is here that the Green Knight challenges Gawain to exchange blows with him. Camelot
On his quest to meet the Green Knight, Gawain stays here for a short period of time.